Contents

22.1 Introduction 498

22.1.1 Nonthermal Processing Methods 498

22.1.2 Advantages and Disadvantages of Application 498

22.2 High Hydrostatic Pressure Processing (HPP) 499

22.2.1 Introduction 499

22.2.1.1 Definition and Historical Perspective 499

22.2.1.2 Equipment 500

22.2.1.3 Critical Processing Factors 500

22.2.2 Inactivation of Problematic Microorganisms 501

22.2.2.1 Spores and Vegetative Bacteria 501

22.2.2.2 Viruses 504

22.2.2.3 Parasites 505

22.2.3 Summary 505

22.3 Irradiation 505

22.3.1 Introduction 505

22.3.2 Application to Fruits, Vegetables, and Juices 506

22.3.2.1 Spores and Vegetative Bacteria 506

22.3.2.2 Parasites 508

22.3.3 Summary 509

22.4 Pulsed Electric Fields in Juice Processing 509

22.4.1 Introduction 509

22.4.2 Application to Juices 511

22.4.3 Summary 512

22.5 Ultrasonic Waves for Preservation of Fruit and

Vegetable Products 512

22.5.1 Introduction and Description of Process 512

22.5.2 Microbial Inactivation 513

22.5.3 Summary 514

22.6 Electrolyzed Water 514

22.6.1 Introduction 514

22.6.2 Application as a Novel Disinfectant for Fruits and Vegetables

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