23.1 Introduction 523

23.2 Approaches to Biocontrol in Postharvest Situations 524

23.2.1 Use of Naturally Occurring Antagonists for Colonization of Infection Sites 524 Postharvest Applications 524 Preharvest Applications 525 Possible Mechanisms for Biocontrol 526

23.2.2 Use of Mutant Pathogen Strains 527

23.2.3 Biological Fumigation 528

23.3 Advantages and Limitations of Postharvest Biocontrol 528

23.3.1 Advantages of Postharvest Biocontrol 528

23.3.2 Disadvantages of Biocontrol Agents 529

23.4 Enhancing Biocontrol Activity 530

23.4.1 In Combination with Other Treatments 530

23.4.2 Improvement in Formulation 531

23.4.3 Screening and Selection of the Microorganism 532

23.4.4 Collaborative Research Among Industry, University Researchers, Government, and Growers/Packers 532

23.5 Regulatory Process for Biocontrol Agents 533

23.5.1 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) 533

23.5.2 California and International Regulations 534

23.6 Concluding Remarks 534

References 535

With the registration and commercialization of biocontrol products such as Aspire (Candida oleophila) and BioSave (Pseudomonas syringae) in the U.S.

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