Contents

4.1 Microbial Stress Adaptation Phenomenon 95

4.1.1 Stress 95

4.1.2 Stress Response 96

4.1.3 Stress Adaptation and the General Stress Response 96

4.1.4 Regulation of the General Stress Response 97

4.2 Produce Microbiota as Influenced by Stress History 98

4.2.1 Preharvest Stress 98

4.2.1.1 Temperature Fluctuation 99

4.2.1.2 Ultraviolet Radiation 100

4.2.1.3 Osmotic Stress 101

4.2.2 Postharvest Stress 102

4.2.2.1 Cold Stress 102

4.2.2.2 Acid Stress 104

4.2.2.3 Oxidative Stress 105

4.2.2.4 Minimal Processing 106

4.3 Microbial Stress Adaptation on Produce 106

4.4 Assessing Stress Adaptation and Associated Risks 107

4.5 Summary 108

References 108

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