Contents

26.1 Introduction 596

26.2 Visualization of Bacteria on Plants: Available Tools 596

26.2.1 Labeling of Bacteria with Fluorescent Proteins 596

26.2.2 Labeling of Bacteria with Dyes and

Fluorescent Conjugates 598

26.3 Applications 600

26.3.1 Spatial Distribution 600

26.3.2 Cell-Cell Interactions 602

26.3.3 Measurement of Biological Parameters 604

26.3.3.1 Kogure Assay for Cell Viability 605

26.3.3.2 Indicators of Membrane Integrity 606

26.3.3.3 GFP Fluorescence and Cell Viability 607

26.3.3.4 Other Fluorescent Indicators of Bacterial Physiology 607

26.3.4 Bacterial Gene Expression In Situ on Plants 608

26.3.4.1 GFP as a Reporter of Gene Expression 608

26.3.4.2 Practical Note on the Use of GFP for Gene Expression Measurements 610

26.3.4.3 FISH for the Detection of Bacterial mRNA 611

26.3.4.4 Immunolabeling of Gene Products 611

26.4 Other Types of Microscopy 612

26.4.1 Multiphoton Excitation Fluorescence Microscopy 612

26.4.2 Fluorescence Stereomicroscopy 613

26.4.3 Immunoelectron Microscopy 613

26.5 Concluding Remarks 614

References 615

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