Contents

18.1 Introduction 402

18.2 Chlorine Dioxide Gas 402

18.2.1 Physical, Chemical, and Safety Properties of ClO2 Gas... 402

18.2.2 Antimicrobial Properties of Aqueous and Gaseous ClO2 . 404

18.2.3 ClO2 Gas Generation 404

18.2.4 General Gas/Vapor Treatment Systems 407

18.2.5 Mechanisms for Microbial Inactivation 409

18.2.6 Factors Influencing ClO2 Gas Treatment 409

18.2.7 Efficacy in Reducing Microorganisms on Different Produce Surfaces 412

18.2.8 Effects of ClO2 Gas Treatment on Quality of Produce ... 414

18.3 Ozone Gas 414

18.3.1 Properties of Ozone 414

18.3.2 Potential Applications of Ozone in the Food Industry____415

18.3.3 Generation of Ozone 415

18.3.4 Treatment Systems 416

18.3.5 Mechanisms of Inactivation of Microbes 417

18.3.6 Factors Influencing Sanitation Treatment by Ozone Gas 417

18.3.7 Efficacy in Reducing Foodborne Microorganisms on Produce Surfaces 418

18.3.8 Effects of Ozone Gas Treatments on Quality of Fruits and Vegetables 421

18.4 Allyl Isothiocyanate Gas 422

18.4.1 Properties 422

18.4.2 Mechanisms and Factors Influencing Sanitation Treatment 422

18.4.3 Efficacy in Reducing Foodborne Pathogens on Produce

Surfaces 422

18.4.4 Effects of AITC Vapor Treatment on Quality of Fruits and Vegetables 422

18.5 Other Gases/Vapors 423

18.5.1 Hydrogen Peroxide Vapor 423

18.5.2 Acetic Acid Vapor 424

18.5.3 Other Natural Plant Volatiles 425

18.6 Present and Future Applications of Gaseous/Vapor-Phase Antimicrobials for Decontamination of Fresh Produce 426

18.7 Regulatory Considerations 427

References 428

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