Contents

19.1 Introduction 437

19.1.1 Definitions 438

19.2 Antimicrobial Activity of MAP Gases 439

19.2.2 Superatmospheric O2 440

19.3 Packaging and Films for MAP Produce Systems 441

19.3.1 Film Permeability and CO2/O2 Permselectivity 441

19.3.2 Active Packaging: Antimicrobial Films 442

19.3.2.1 Synthetic Polymer Films 442

19.3.2.2 Edible and Biodegradable Films 443

19.4 An Integrated Approach: Multiple Barriers and MAP 445

19.4.1 Background 445

19.4.2 Biopreservation and Protective Cultures 445

19.4.3 O2/CO2 Absorbers and Generators 447

19.4.4 Pretreatments and Miscellaneous Strategies 447

19.5 Microbiology of Map Fruits and Vegetables 448

19.5.1 Minimally Processed Fruits and Vegetables 448

19.5.2 Spoilage Organisms and Commodity Shelf Life 450

19.5.3 Pathogenic Organisms and Shelf Life 451

19.5.3.1 Food Safety Risk of MAP Produce 451

19.5.3.2 Psychrotrophic Pathogens 452

19.5.3.3 Other Pathogens of Concern 453

19.5.4 Microbial Ecology of MAP Systems 454

19.6 Mathematical Predictive Modeling 455

19.7 Future Directions 456

References 456

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