Contents

17.1 Introduction 376

17.2 Conventional Washing Technology 376

17.2.1 Washing Agents 376

17.2.1.1 Chlorine 376

17.2.1.2 Alternatives to Chlorine 378

17.2.2 Washing Equipment 383

17.2.2.1 Types of Washers 383

17.2.2.2 Efficacy of Washers 385

17.2.3 Factors Limiting the Efficacy of Washing 387

17.3 Novel Washing Technology 387

17.3.1 Hydrogen Peroxide 387

17.3.2 Trisodium Phosphate and Other Alkaline

Washing Agents 388

17.3.3 Organic Acids 389

17.3.4 Other Experimental Antimicrobial Washing Agents 390

17.3.5 Synergistic Treatment Combinations 390

17.4 Foodservice and Home Applications 391

17.4.1 FDA Recommendations 391

17.4.2 Other Options 392

17.4.3 Commercial Equipment and Wash Formulations for Home or Foodservice Use 393

17.5 Conclusions 394

Acknowledgments 394

References 394

Mention of trade names or commercial products is solely for the purpose of providing specific information and does not imply recommendation or endorsement by the U.S. Department of Agriculture.

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