Contents

13.1 Introduction 282

13.2 Methods of Analysis 283

13.2.1 Introduction 283

13.2.2 Thin-Layer Chromatography (TLC) 283

13.2.3 Gas Chromatography (GC) 284

13.2.4 Liquid Chromatography (LC) 284

13.2.5 Micellar Electrokinetic Capillary Chromatography (MECC) 285

13.2.6 Other Methods 285

13.3 Toxicological Effects of Patulin 286

13.3.1 Introduction 286

13.3.2 Acute Toxicity Studies 286

13.3.3 Immunotoxicity Studies 286

13.3.4 Reproductive Toxicity and Teratogenicity Studies 287

13.3.5 Genotoxicity Studies 287

13.3.6 Carcinogenicity Studies 287

13.3.7 Mechanism(s) of Toxicity 288

13.4 Regulatory Aspects 288

13.5 Fungal Species Producing Patulin in Foods 288

13.6 Natural Occurrence of P. expansum and Patulin in

Fruits and Vegetables 289

13.7 Factors Affecting Patulin Production 290

13.7.1 Introduction 290

13.7.2 Physical, Chemical, and Microbial Properties of Apples.. 291

13.7.3 Environmental Factors 292

13.8 Approaches for Controlling Patulin Levels 293

13.8.1 Introduction 293

13.8.2 Preharvest 294

13.8.3 Harvest 295

13.8.4 Postharvest 295

13.8.4.1 Introduction 295

13.8.4.2 Washing Treatments 296

13.8.4.3 Culling, Sorting, and Trimming 297

13.8.4.4 Chemical, Heat, and Biological Control, and Irradiation Treatments

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