Contents

2.1 Introduction 34

2.2 Basic Anatomy and Biochemistry of Roots and Leaves 35

2.2.1 Rhizoplane 35

2.2.2 Phylloplane 36

2.3 Microbial Flora of Plants 37

2.4 Attachment by Plant Nitrogen Fixing, Epiphytic, and

Pathogenic Bacteria to Plants 38

2.4.1 Rhizobium spp. (Rhsp) 38

2.4.1.1 Two-Step Model of Attachment 40

2.4.1.2 Attachment Factors 40

2.4.2 Agrobacterium tumefaciens (Agt) 41

2.4.2.1 Agt and Rhicadhesin 43

2.4.2.3 Cellulose 43

2.4.3 Ralstonia (Pseudomonas) solanacearum (Rs) 43

2.4.3.2 Type III Secretion System (T3SS) 44

2.4.3.3 Type II Secretion System (T2SS) 45

2.4.3.4 Rs Lectins, Fimbriae, FHA 45

2.4.4 Erwinia spp 45

2.4.5 Pseudomonas spp 46

2.4.6 Xanthomonas campestris (Xc) 47

2.4.7 Azospirillum spp 48

2.4.8 Klebsiella spp 48

2.5 Fungi and Viruses and Plants 48

2.6 Potential Attachment Factors of Enteric Bacterial Pathogens for Plants 48

2.7 Attachment of Human Enteric Pathogens to Plants and other Interactions

2.7.1 Lettuce and E. coli O157:H7

2.7.2 Tomatoes and Apples and Salmonella enterica (Se)

2.7.3 Sprouts and E. coli O157 (EcO157) and Se

2.7.4 Cilantro and Se Thompson (SeT)

2.7.5 Produce Samples and L. monocytogenes (Lm)

2.7.6 Cantaloupe and Se, EcO157, and Lm

2.7.7 Arabidopsis thaliana and EcO157 and Se

2.7.8 Plant-Microbe Biofilms

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