From the available toxicological data, it is unclear whether patulin is a carcinogen. In a study by Dickens and Jones , patulin, when administered subcutaneously twice a week to rats for 15 months, induced sarcomas at the injection sites. However, in two long-term studies, patulin administered orally by gavage was not carcinogenic in rats or mice [44,50]. In their review of these studies, IARC39 concluded that no evaluation could be made of the carcinogenicity of patulin to humans and that there was inadequate evidence in experimental animals .
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