Anatomic Studies Of Mucosal Organs And Their Functional Implications

Current extensive studies of lymphoid cell trafficking as related to the induction of mucosal immune responses or tolerance have emphasized the role of unique lymphoepithelial structures associated with the intestinal and respiratory tract. These structures were described in the intestine by Johannes Conrad Peyer (1653-1712), a Swiss anatomist and naturalist who lived most of his life in what is now known as Schaffhausen in the vicinity of Lake Constance. It was here that he first noted in 1673...

Antibodies Of External Secretions

This discovery of antibodies in external secretions, or more specifically in gastrointestinal tract secretions, should be credited to a Russian pathologist, Alexandre Besredka (1870 -1940), who initiated studies at the Pasteur Institute (which he headed) with two species of bacteria (Besredka, 1919). He used toxin-producing Shigella dysenteriae for work on enteric infections, and Bacillus anthracis, which Pasteur himself had used earlier in studies to develop an anthrax vaccine. Besredka...

Mucosal Microbiota

Based on Pasteur's work on the microbial nature of fermentation, it was widely believed that the presence of bacteria in the intestine was essential for the life of the host (Leidy, 1849). However, Metchnikoff (1903, 1908) tended to regard the intestinal flora as hostile, inducing toxemia in the host, and proposed that the process of premature aging could be prevented by altering the intestinal microbiota. Surprisingly, this doctrine found a fertile ground in the early 20th century and drastic...

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Healing Powers Of Secretions History Of Breastfeeding

Injured animals lick their wounds to clean them and also to hasten their healing. In many ancient cultures, squirting milk in the nose or conjunctiva of sick children and the application of urine or saliva to skin injuries were common medical practices. Lactational products of human and other mammalian species have long been associated with unique healing powers. Human milk, especially mother's own milk, has been considered a complete food for infants of all mammals in many ancient scriptures....

Mucosal Vaccination

The seminal contributions of Paul Ehrlich to the field of mucosal immunity are rarely appreciated in modern literature, yet his outstanding studies performed more than 100 years ago must impress current researchers with their simplicity, perfection of execution, and impact on the future development of mucosal immunology. The protective effect of oral immunization with highly toxic substances of plant origin ricin, abrin, and robin was demonstrated in three animal species mainly mice, but also...