Perhaps the loudest debates of all have arisen about the implications of the Human Genome Project, a massive undertaking to determine the complete genetic makeup of human beings. During the project's final years, media attention focused on the rivalry between Francis Collins, who led the international, government-sponsored project, and scientist-entrepreneur Craig Venter, who headed a private company that claimed it could complete the genome analysis sooner and more inexpensively than the government effort could. Once the project was complete, however, discussion centered on the ways the genome information might be used. Observers say that understanding the human genome could lead to greatly improved treatments for disease, unprecedented discrimination based on genetic makeup or perhaps both.
Or wasteful displays of materialism and conspicuous consumption such as buying exotic cars, mansions, and elaborate jewelry as a means of exhibiting their power and achievements to others. Most feel a deep sense of emptiness, juxtaposed with vague images of how different life might have been had opportunity blessed them, as it has so many others. Some are simple thieves, while others become manipulative entrepreneurs who exploit people as objects to satisfy their desires. Although they have little compassion for or guilt about the effects of their behavior, they never feel that they have acquired quite enough, never achieve a sense of contentment, and feel unfulfilled regardless of their successes, remaining forever dissatisfied and insatiable.
Thomson's breakthrough attracted more than scientific attention. Just days after his monkey report appeared, Michael West, an entrepreneur who headed a California biotechnology company called Geron Corporation, paid the Wisconsin scientist a visit. The name of West's company, which came from a Greek word meaning old man, reflected West's interest in finding a way to halt human aging. West believed that human embryonic stem cells, if they could be isolated, might be harnessed to achieve his aim. If Thomson would try to find these cells, West said, Geron would pay for most of the research.
Among preschool age children, 8 of AAPI and Hispanic children did not have a physician visit in the past year compared to 5 of whites and African American children. For school age children (6-17 years), Hispanics AI ANs, and AAPIs are one-and-a-half to two times more likely not to have visited a physician in the last two years compared with African Americans and whites. One of the reasons that African American children are covered at a higher rate than AAPI and Hispanic children is because of the safety net of Medicaid, for which some AAPI and Hispanic children are not eligible because of their immigrant status and their parents' fear of applying for their native-born children. Other families are uninsured because of working in small businesses or being self-employed. Hispanic, AI AN, and AAPI children are two to three times as likely as white and African American children to lack a usual place of care (Henry J. Kaiser Foundation, 2002).
Co-management by unequal status partners is therefore not enough. To unleash the potentials for sound management and entrepreneurial success that effective collaboration holds, what the parks need and what their neighbours need are negotiated contractual agreements between parties with legal persona, holding rights to veto or withdrawal. The ecological and economic benefits of such agreements are manifest in the flourishing private conservancies that border Kruger National Park, but such agreements will not be possible for its communal neighbours until their status is changed to that of being legally recognized private collective entities.
At the very boundary of normality and pathology, we find persons who have never come into conflict with the law, but only because they are very effective in covering their tracks. Although these individuals share with most antisocials a guiltless willingness to deceive and exploit others, they are not overtly physically cruel. Instead, their premeditated restraint often makes them seem more sadistic than antisocial. Stereotypes include industrialists and entrepreneurs who flourish in the gray area of legal technicalities, as well as savvy corporate executives who exploit some market
Successful wildlife-based (non-consumptive) tourism requires, among other conditions, that the destination has either exotic or photographic appeal (Murphree, 2001). In addition, the entry of wildlife producers into this market required much higher levels of capital investment (Barnes, 1998). The analysis of this market is also severely constrained by limited information. Statistics on tourism entry are generally disaggregated by activity (namely business, visitor, health, education, other) and not spatially referenced. Of the countries covered by this analysis, South Africa receives the highest number of tourists annually followed by Zimbabwe (Table 3.3). More significantly, the data suggest that tourism numbers rose significantly between 1990 and 1998. Qualitative analysis of the tourism arrivals suggests that at least 70 per cent of international tourists10 have been attracted by the region's unique and accessible wildlife (Krug, 2001). Private landholders across the region have...
Few people would object to a treatment that prevents heart attacks or Alzheimer's disease, but critics such as conservative ethicist Leon Kass have questioned whether greatly extending overall human lifespan is a good idea. Earth is already overpopulated, these opponents of life extension point out. They claim that adding large numbers of older people, many of whom might need expensive medical care, could produce financial and ecological disaster. At very least, a high proportion of life-extended people might produce an excessively conservative society, eminent Harvard zoologist Edward O. Wilson wrote in Esquire in May 1999. Such people would have the physical capabilities of teenagers but . . . would be culturally, educationally, and emotionally aged. . . . Those who have survived and enjoyed longevity extension . . . won't be revolutionaries. They won't be bold entrepreneurs or explorers who risk their lives.
DiLorenzo, MD, PhD, MBA is a Neurosurgeon, Engineer, and Inventor Entrepreneur. Dan has received several awards for invention, including the 1999 Lemelson-MIT 30,000 Student Innovation Award for his work in the fields of Robotics, Neuroengineering, and Medical Devices. He was named in the 1999 Technology Review TR100 (100 innovators most likely to have an impact on technology) and was recognized by Entrepreneur Magazine as one of 5 New Geniuses for his Innovation in 2000. He was also named as one of the 40 Under 40 Seattle business leaders by the Puget Sound Business Journal in 2005. He was the founding CEO CTO of NeuroVista Corporation (formerly BioNeuronics), which he founded while a neuro-surgical resident and launched in Seattle to develop innovative technologies to treat epilepsy. Dan is currently on the advisory board for the Smithsonian Institution's National Museum of American History Lemelson Center for the Study of Invention and Innovation. He holds several...
Genentech, like similar companies formed soon afterward by other scientists and entrepreneurs, drew on Boyer and Cohen's discovery that foreign genes put into bacteria could produce the proteins that the genes had made in their original location, even if the bacteria normally would never make those proteins. As the bacteria and their added genes multiplied, the bacterial colonies in effect became tiny factories that potentially could churn out desirable proteins in tremendous amounts.
The opium poppy has been the source of humankind's greatest comfort and scourge. From its roots in the pharmacopoeias of the Egyptians, Sumerians, Persians, Greeks, and Romans opium was borne along the arteries of commerce into India, China, and finally Europe in the baggage of returning crusaders at the end of the last millenium. Paracelsus invented a mixture of opium, alcohol, and spices which he called 'laudanum', and this mixture soothed and tormented millions of Europeans over the next 400 years. The conquest of Bengal in 1773 gave Britain a monopoly of Indian opium, which the East India Company aggressively exported to China in exchange for vast quantities of high-quality tea to feed the insatiable British appetite. The Opium Wars which resulted from the Chinese emperor's discontentment at being saddled with 20 million new addicts led to the additional bonus for the British of the ceding of Hong Kong island as a colony 'in perpetuity'. The drug reached North America with the...
In response to a series of juice-associated outbreaks, the FDA published its final rule on January 19, 2001 requiring the application of HACCP to juice production 13 . The rule became effective January 22, 2002 for large businesses. For small and very small businesses effective dates were January 21, 2003 and January 20, 2004, respectively. As part of the rule, the FDA issued a performance standard that requires all juice receive a treatment wherein the pertinent pathogen is reduced in concentration by 100,000-fold (5-log units). The 5-log reduction standard'' was established based on recommendations by the National Advisory Committee on Microbiological Criteria for Foods (NACMCF). NACMCF considered worst-case scenarios, such as might occur if apples were contaminated directly with bovine feces. The committee included a 100-fold safety factor in their recommendation for a 5-log reduction process to ensure the safety of juice. The FDA also considered regulatory precedence when setting...
As centralized state agencies, a major determinant of the performance of park authorities is the general status of the political and administrative environment. Therefore, to provide a situation analysis, we draw on Grindle and Thomas's (1991) excellent generalized description of the policy environment in developing countries. They note that governance in developing countries tends to be over-centralized and over-politicized, with individuals having considerable power yet insufficient and unreliable technical or economic information on which to base decisions. Consequently, political power becomes the central determinant of policy outcomes, which tend to be politically rather than economically oriented. Centralized, non-representative governance has structural roots in colonial rule, but is exacerbated by the fear that decentralization will lead to political dissolution and conflict in states cobbled together from different ethnic groups. Additionally, donors have buttressed the...
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