English Speaking Software
An exact count of case numbers in Japan is difficult because of inaccessibility of material to English speakers and duplicate publications, but the number of 71 patients mentioned by Prof. Hirose in his chapter appears to be a conservative estimate. Thus Japan, in contrast to the few reports from other parts of Asia 5, 15, 17, 28, 37, 61, 69, 83, 84, 104, 139 and the approximately 150-200 cases from the rest of the world 25 , appears to have the highest diagnosis rate in the world.
Many English-speaking and Scandinavian countries have had a tradition of criminalizing drinking in public places or public drunkenness as such, but the trend has been to decriminalize public drunkenness. Though there are few specific studies, criminalizing public drunkenness may not be very effective in changing the behaviour of those who have little to lose.
In his book Symbionticism and the Origin of Species from 1927, Ivan Wallin (1883-1969) at the University of Colorado advanced the theory that the inheritance of acquired bacteria was the source of new genes and the primary mechanism for the origin of species. Wallin had come to symbiosis and mitochondria through studies of tissue differentiation and development in the lamprey Ammocetes. The continental research on mitochondria and their proposed roles in development and heredity were introduced to English-speaking researchers by Edmund Cowdry (1918). Wallin had also made a study of Portier's Les symbiotes, and he pressed the idea in the context of heredity, development, and evolution.
Although English-speaking psychiatrists (and most members of the general public) customarily use the word 'paranoid' to mean 'persecutory', strictly speaking its meaning is 'delusional'.'8) In many writings on 'paranoia' and 'paranoid' disorders, authors do not make it clear whether delusions are present or not in their cases.
Begun as a research intervention, IPT has only lately been disseminated among clinicians and in residency training programmes. There have been increasing requests for training in IPT following IPT milestones including the publication of efficacy data, the promulgation of practice guidelines that embrace IPT among antidepressant treatments, and its endorsement by Consumer Reports.(i5) Managed care and economic pressures have also aroused growing interest in defined and proven time-limited treatments. IPT has been translated into several languages and appears to be spreading in non-English speaking countries.
While language can be a major obstacle in mental state assessment, for many people from minority ethnic groups who speak English the problem is one of communication rather than language. Both missed diagnoses and misdiagnosis may result and a lack of recognition of the personal, social, and cultural problems which influence the presenting patterns of symptoms in different ethnic groups can contribute to the tendency of clinicians to make assumptions and listen out for stereotypical triggers which then prompt a particular therapeutic response. Such triggers include religious euphoria, use of cannabis in African-Caribbeans, and the 'fatalistic attitude' attributed to Asian patients. For example, the diagnosis of cannabis-induced psychosis effectively blames the patient for causing his own illness. This may both provide a convenient expression of racist attitudes as well as deprive the patient of correct treatment.
In 1999, Davidson et al.(9) described the development and operation of 12 models of community-based dual diagnosis service that had been published by that time in the English speaking literature (nine in the United States, one in Canada, one in Australia, and one in the United Kingdom). These models offered a variety of services including crisis intervention to people with mental retardation and psychiatric disorders and or challenging behaviour problems.
In 1894, Yersin went to study a Hong Kong outbreak of plague because the facilities for studying the disease were better in Hong Kong than in Vietnam. Unfortunately for Yersin, Shibasaburo Kitasato, the famous colleague of Robert Koch and Emil von Behring, had arrived 3 days before he did with a large team of Japanese scientists. British authorities had given them access to patients and laboratory facilities. Since Yersin did not speak English, it was difficult for him to communicate with the authorities. Moreover, although both he and the Japanese scientists spoke fluent German, the Japanese team treated him coolly, perhaps as a reflection of the intense rivalry between
The Puget group was the first to report a 6kb duplication of BRCA1 exon 13, which was evaluated in a multicenter study involving collaborators from 19 countries.40 Based on haplotype analysis, the BRCA1 exon 13 duplication is most likely a founder mutation and is seen primarily in English-speaking countries or in countries with ancestral links to Britain. The mutation was observed among 10 of 1831 affected families from English-speaking countries.
The Bulletin of the American Academy of Science Vol. 44, no. 4 (January 1992) has a very perceptive essay on the meaning of citizenship and the treatment of immigrants or foreigners. It brings back to my mind my situation when I came to the States in the early 1930s. In America, nationalism in the European sense of ethnocentricity is hardly developed at all, and one is proud of the country being a melting pot. A third generation immigrant is usually English-speaking and hardly distinguishable from any other American. In Europe each country has a somewhat different attitude toward foreigners or immigrants. Germany is almost at one extreme in the 1920s there was still the memory of the unification of Germany in 1871, the end of a long period of extreme separatism, of literally hundreds of little states. The result was an almost extreme nationalism and emphasis on the ethnic aspect. According to the above mentioned article, this is true even today. Even a third generation Turkish...
Liability in tort encompasses a wide variety of non-contractual civil wrongs, including such diverse matters as negligence, nuisance, defamation, and trespass to land. It is worth noting that trespass to the person (assault and battery) is a civil wrong as well as a criminal offence and concurrent liability will lie. However, this section concentrates on the law of negligence which is the main area where liability problems might occur. Again, the authors must emphasize that we concentrate mainly upon English law, but within the area of tort the law in other English-speaking jurisdictions is very similar, and even in codified jurisdictions, such as France and Germany, there are similarities of approach. A secondary victim is someone who has some sort of proximity to one or more primary victims. (There are similarities in other European jurisdictions for example in France this is dommage par ricochet, and the rules are more generous than in English-speaking jurisdictions.) In English...
Infraorder Gekkota includes Geckos (Gekkonidae and Eublepharidae) and Australasian legless lizards (Pygopodidae). Geckos are known for their ability to climb up walls and across ceilings because of the microscopic suction cups on the bristles of their toe pads. They are widespread throughout tropical and subtropical regions of both the New and Old Worlds. Geckos can also vocalize, and their name derives from an Asian species with a cry that sounds like geck-o. The earliest unequivocal gekkotan fossil is Hoburogecko from Mongolia in the Early Cretaceous, 105 million years ago. Most geckos are less than 6 inches long (not including the tail, which frequently breaks off).
The supply of cadaveric donors is just as inadequate in many European countries with presumed consent laws as it is in English speaking countries, where consent to remove organs must be obtained from the closest relative. In many countries where transplantation is not a high priority, individuals who are moribund and considered not salvageable are not admitted to intensive care units. Temporary ventilatory support is withheld and cardio circulatory collapse follows. In other potential donors ventilatory support may be initiated, but inadequate attention is paid to maintaining normal physiologic function in organ systems after brain death has been diagnosed. The striking exceptions are Spain, Austria and Belgium, all of which have presumed consent laws. In all three countries national government recognizes maximum retrieval of transplantable organs as a national priority. Spain in particular has engaged participation of anesthesiologists in most of its hospitals to lead identification...
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