Endurance Exercise Ebook

Bags, Bells, and Bodyweight Training System

This eBook is designs a program to make you strong and fit in an athletic way, rather than a big and bulky kind of way. This program makes you lean, ripped, and athletic. This gives you a program that makes you actually strong, powerful, and athletic, rather than just looking like you lift. It gives you explosive gains in full body strength and muscle, huge increases in stamina, and a shredded body and mental toughness. This program takes advantage of the three best kinds of bodybuilding equipment: sandbags, kettlebells, and bodyweight workouts. These methods of working out provide much bigger results than a simple pump to your muscles; they actually provide real strength training. In addition, you get 4 free eBooks when you get Bags, Bells, and Bodyweight. You will also get The Sandbag Manual, The Kettlebell Manuel, The Bodyweight Manuel, which all go into more detail about how to use each one to the max. You will also get The Dumbbell Manuel, which shows you what to do if you have no kettlebells. This complete workout system builds whole bodies, not just a few muscles. Read more...

Bags Bells and Bodyweight Training System Summary

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Carbohydrate metabolism during endurance exercise

One other aspect of glycogen mobilisation is worthy of mention. Recall that glycogen, a hydrophilic molecule, is stored in hydrated form with about three times its own weight of water. When glycogen is mobilised, that water is released. Therefore, as well as providing the store of carbohydrate, glycogen also contributes to the water necessary for endurance exercise, helping to replace that lost as sweat, etc. If 300 g of glycogen are mobilised in all, this could mean almost one litre of water. Note that the comment made above, that the plasma glucose concentration may not change much during endurance exercise, does not mean that there are no changes in glucose utilisation. The concentration of glucose in the plasma merely represents the balance between glucose production and glucose utilisation. The turnover of glucose in plasma increases several-fold during endurance exercise (see Romijn et al. 1993). The rate of glucose uptake by skeletal muscle must also increase several-fold. This...

Fat metabolism during endurance exercise

The fatty acids oxidised during endurance exercise come from two main sources triacylglycerol stored in adipose tissue, and triacylglycerol stored in the muscles themselves. The latter is difficult to study and the factors controlling muscle triacylglycerol utilisation are not clear. Nevertheless, the muscle triacylglycerol concentration falls during intense, long-lasting exercise. The regulation of fat mobilisation from adipose tissue is better understood. The main stimulus for this to increase during exercise is adrenergic. Blockade of P-adrenergic receptors in adipose tissue with the drug propranolol prevents the increase in lipolysis during exercise (see Fig. 7.7). The main stimulus may be circulating adrenaline or activation of the sympathetic nerves. Studies of exercise in people who have had spinal cord injuries, so that some of their adipose tissue is innervated whilst some is not, suggest that circulating adrenaline is more important than the sympathetic innervation. The...

Regulation of Membrane Associated Fatty Acid Transporter Expression

Extensive studies examining the effect of diet on the levels of putative membrane transporters have not yet been published. Studies employing whole animal models, however, have provided some information regarding overall regulation of these proteins. For example, FABPpm expression is markedly elevated in the white adipose tissue of Zucker diabetic and obese (fa fa) rats.62 These rats have lost insulin sensitivity and therefore an increased level of FABPpm mRNA in these animals indicates insulin is a negative regulator of FABPpm expression. The insulin effect in these animals appears to be tissue sensitive, as there was no difference in FABPpm levels in the liver of these rats.62 No information regarding the presence or absence of an insulin-responsive element (IRE) upstream of the FABPpm coding region is available to date. FABPpm levels are also affected by the FA utilization requirements of the tissue. FABPpm levels have been shown to increase in oxidative skeletal muscle during...

Other hormonal responses during aerobic exercise

Hormone and Cortisol are secreted in response to exercise, rising in concentration in the plasma gradually over the first 30 minutes to 1 hour (Fig. 8.12) - i.e. these are relatively slow responses, and are likely to be involved particularly in the release of stored fuels during prolonged exercise. The plasma glucose concentration may rise or fall during exercise (discussed below), but the insulin concentration falls somewhat during endurance exercise (Fig. 8.13). This represents a-adrenergic inhibition of its secretion from the pancreas, brought about by the increased circulating adrenaline concentrations. Glucagon secretion may also increase, although this is not a major change except with very strenuous, prolonged exercise. The increase in adrenaline, glucagon, growth hormone and cortisol concentrations is a typical 'stress' response (see Fig. 7.6). Since the major effects of glucagon are on the liver, and liver metabolism may not be dominant during exercise because of restricted...

Carbohydrates and Athletic Performance

Carbohydrate present in muscle (300 g), liver (90 g), and body fluids (30 g) is the major fuel for physical performance. The ATP stored in muscle cells can only give high-power output for a few seconds. It can be resynthesized anaerobically for a further few seconds (5-8) by using the phosphate from creatinine phosphate. These short, intense bursts of muscular activity are found in sprints (100 meters), track and field events, and sports such as tennis, hockey, football, gymnastics, and weightlifting. If the maximum effort lasts for 30 seconds, then breakdown of muscle glycogen can supply the energy, with buildup of muscle lactic acid. Most physical activity, however, requires an energy source that can power muscles for longer periods. The duration and intensity of exercise determines the mix of fuel used. In resting or light activity, about 60 is from free fatty acids (FFAs) and tri-glycerides in muscles. At moderate levels of activity (approximately 50 of the maximum O 2 uptake),...

Phase V Weeks 8 to

Wrist and elbow strengthening is advanced, and eccentrics are stressed. The patient begins aggressive shoulder-strengthening exercises, including overhead rotator cuff exercises. Upper-body ergometer endurance training is advanced. The patient begins throwing patterns. The patient continues aggressive upper-body strengthening and begins plyometric training. He or she continues endurance training. Restoration of normal flexibility is emphasized.

Overtraining Syndrome

The overtraining syndrome can present with a wide range of symptoms (See Table 13-2). Overtraining is generally associated with endurance sports, such as swimming or running. Cross-training, rest, and taking time off from certain physical activities will all reduce or prevent overtraining symptoms. The person who continues training despite the symptoms listed in Table 13-2 will only become more overtrained, continue to have decreases in performance, and will be at an increased risk for injury.

Metabolic regulation during aerobic exercise

Metabolic Changes During Exercise

It is illuminating to consider how much ATP is needed for endurance exercise - for instance, running a marathon. An approximate calculation is given in Box 8.5. A marathon runner will use almost his or her own body weight of ATP. Clearly this ATP was not all stored at the beginning of exercise In fact the total amount of ATP is probably almost the same at the end of the race as at the beginning (see from Fig. 8.7 how the ATP content of muscle is maintained even during intense, anaerobic contractions). In other words, the ATP pool must be continuously resynthesised, to the extent that about 60 -70 kg of ATP are synthesised during the race. The question now becomes what are the metabolic fuels used for ATP resynthesis during aerobic exercise

Repetitive Bouts Of Exercise

In contrast to a vast number of investigations on immune cell responses to a single bout of exercise, there is limited information on how repeated bouts of exercise on the same day affect the immune system. The few studies that have measured changes in concentration and function of leukocytes associated with repeated bouts of exercise have all used different exercise and recovery protocols, as well as subjects with varying training status 43,146,147 . A methodological limitation that applies to all of the previous investigations is the lack of control for diurnal variations in various blood constituents, as the response to a first bout of exercise in the morning has been compared with a second or third bout later on the same day. Besides, the exercise and recovery protocols used in the aforementioned studies hardly reflect the daily exercise and recovery regime practised by most elite endurance athletes. A recent study used a study design that eliminated the effect of diurnal...

Principles of Sports Rehabilitation

9.3.2 Metabolic Pathway of Endurance Athletes 230 9.3.3 Physiological Adaptations After Prolonged Endurance Training 230 9.3.11 Importance of Specificity in Training in Endurance Sports 234 9.3.2 Metabolic Pathway of Endurance Athletes Aerobic metabolism (the form used by endurance athletes) uses fat derived from triglycerides stored in muscles and glucose derived from glycogen stores. With endurance training, there is an adaptive increase in the enzymes for oxidation of lipids and relative sparing of glycogen stores An example of endurance athlete is a long distance runner On a microscopic scale, there is a decrease in mitochondrial density or the number of mitochondria per volume of muscle tissue with increase in muscle mass, even though the number of mitochondria may increase slightly. This change lowers aerobic capacity and is a phenomenon known as mitochondrial dilution - forms the basis of argument (by some) against concurrent strength and endurance training in professional...

Behaviour modifiers of stress effects

Exercise can affect immunity positively or negatively. Acute aerobic exercise transiently increases NK cell numbers and activity. Overtraining without adequate periods of rest and recovery can diminish NK- and T-cell functions and increase incidence of infectious diseases. Several studies have reported an association between physical inactivity and risk of colon cancer, and animal tumorigenesis experiments tend to show that regular exercise reduces tumour burden. Even moderate exercise in very frail elderly people can reduce both NK- and T-cell functions, quite contrary to the effects of moderate endurance exercise on increasing resistance to infectious disease in normal subjects. Exercise increases lifespan in rats fed ad libitum. The combination of exercise and severe food restriction found in patients with anorexia nervosa leads (as in experimental animals) to morbid immunosuppression.

Nervous system and cardiovascular responses during aerobic exercise

An important part of the physiological response during endurance exercise is an increase in cardiac output (both the rate and force of heart contraction increase), and an increased delivery of blood to skeletal muscle. The increase in cardiac output is mediated mainly by the sympathetic nervous system, acting on P-adrenergic receptors in the heart. An increase in cardiac output in itself might cause an increase in muscle blood flow, but there is an additional specific dilatation of the blood vessels in the muscle. Blood flow to the active muscle increases almost instantaneously at the onset of exercise. The mechanism that brings this about is not entirely clear. It used to be thought that this was mediated by cholinergic impulses from the sympathetic nerves (discussed in Chapter 7, Section 7.3.2 and Fig. 7.5). Skeletal muscle is unusual in that activation of the sympathetic nervous system causes vasodilatation in other organs (e.g. skin, kidneys and abdominal organs) blood flow is...

Metabolism of skeletal muscle general features

In some animals, individual muscles are fairly uniform in their fibre type. In the rat, for example, there are some muscles which are composed almost entirely of red or white muscle fibres. For instance, the soleus muscle in the calf is used during movement such as running, and it is composed of consistently slow-twitch fibres. The adductor longus muscle in the thigh plays an intermittent role in maintaining posture and is a mainly fast-twitch muscle. In humans, most muscles are composed of a variety of fibre types. The composition of any particular muscle is not the same in everybody some people have a preponderance of oxidative fibre types, some a preponderance of white, fast-twitch fibre types. This pattern is inherited to some extent. This is one reason why some people are naturally better than others at certain types of athletic events for instance, someone with a preponderance of oxidative fibres will be better at endurance exercise than someone with more white, glycolytic...

Exercise

Total starvation is a very extreme situation in one sense. On the other hand, as stressed in the earlier part of this chapter, it involves a relatively gradual adaptation. The flux through any particular metabolic pathway changes over a period of days or even weeks. Exercise represents a different type of extreme situation. In sprinting, for instance, it has been estimated that net flux through the glycolytic pathway in muscle increases at least a thousand-fold, and this must happen within a few seconds or even less. In strenuous endurance exercise, such as cross-country skiing or elite marathon running, the rate of whole-body energy expenditure increases by something like 18-fold over the resting level. This involves major changes in the transport of substrates through the blood, which could not be achieved without coordinated physiological changes, in the circulatory and respiratory systems, and metabolic changes.

Strength Training

Besides calisthenics, strength exercises with light-weight, portable equipment, such as elastic tubing, dumbbells or a ball, can be performed in small spaces. Examples of these exercises are shown in Table 10-1. Regardless of the equipment used, the general principles and techniques outlined in Chapter 7 for muscle strength and endurance training apply. Follow the set and rep recommendations outlined in Chapter 8 for calisthenic exercises, starting with one set of eight reps. Include exercises for each of the major muscle groups mentioned in Chapter 7, Figure 7-2.

Xvmuscle Dysfunction

Rest and ROS production increases during contractile activity. Oxidative stress occurs in skeletal muscle during skeletal muscle fatigue and sepsis-induced muscle dysfunction, accompanied by an increased load imposed on the diaphragm in patients with severe COPD (148). This may be due to hypoxia, impaired mitochondrial metabolism, and increased cyto-chrome C oxidase activity in skeletal muscle in patients with COPD (148-150). Engelen and coworkers have found reduced muscle glutamate (a precursor of glutathione) levels associated with increased muscle glycolytic metabolism in patients with severe COPD (151). Lowered levels of glutamate were associated with decreased GSH levels, suggesting that oxidant antioxidant imbalance is involved in skeletal muscle dysfunction in patients with COPD. A causal relationship between abnormally low muscle redox potential at rest and the alterations of protein metabolism observed in patients with emphysema has been suggested. This is supported by...

Nutritional Needs

Ever heard the saying use it or lose it This is true for physical fitness. Whether it is muscle strength or aerobic endurance, if you do not remain physically active as you age you cannot maintain the muscle mass or heart adaptations you need for peak performance (review the effects of detraining listed in Chapter 4). Though aging can lead to decreases in fitness levels, the amount of decline can be offset by a regular exercise routine. Therefore, age itself does not predispose you to have large decrements in physical performance.

Heart FABP

Heart and skeletal muscle utilize long-chain fatty acids to provide a majority of their oxidative requirements. Studies of the regulation of HFABP expression have, therefore, focused on conditions under which mitochon-drial P-oxidation is modified.84 For instance, higher levels of HFABP are expressed in red gastrocnemius muscle than white, and expression increases following endurance training, both situations that parallel the relative mitochondrial P-oxidation levels.84 107 109 In a murine muscle cell line, HFABP content was increased in differentiated relative to undifferentiated cells, in parallel with the expression of creatine kinase activity and fatty acid P-oxidation.110

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