The Glucocorticoid Pathway in the Spontaneously Hypertensive

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We have seen that several diverse microvascular defects in the SHR model of hypertension depend on glucocorti-coids. These defects include capillary apoptosis and microvascular rarefaction, apoptosis of SHR thymocytes and lymphocytes, impaired leukocyte-endothelial interaction in post-capillary venules with central leukopenia, enhanced levels of xanthine oxidase and reactive oxygen species, and last not least increased blood pressure with elevated arterial tone. Adrenalectomy serves to normalize the blood pressure in the SHR and attenuates most of the microvascular abnormalities encountered in the SHR while supplementation with glucocorticoids restores the hypertensive state. The response in the adrenalectomized WKY rats at equal levels of glucocorticoids is significantly lower than in the SHR. The SHR suffers from a greatly increased response to adrenal glucocorticoids as well as mineralocor-ticoids. There is currently no conclusive evidence that the adult SHR has increased levels of glucocorticoids, although it has in the mesentery microcirculation significantly elevated density of glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid receptors. Glucocorticoids modulate phosphorylation of the insulin receptor, and may be involved in the insulin resistance of the SHR, forming one of the links between hypertension and diabetes.

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Diabetes 2

Diabetes 2

Diabetes is a disease that affects the way your body uses food. Normally, your body converts sugars, starches and other foods into a form of sugar called glucose. Your body uses glucose for fuel. The cells receive the glucose through the bloodstream. They then use insulin a hormone made by the pancreas to absorb the glucose, convert it into energy, and either use it or store it for later use. Learn more...

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