In 1872 dermatopathologist Moritz Kaposi first described Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) as a rare "idiopathic multiple pigmented sarcoma of the skin" found primarily in the lower extremities of elderly Mediterranean men. For more than a century since this initial description, despite extensive investigation by clinicians and basic science researchers, the cause of KS remained a mystery. In 1994, the Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus/human herpesvirus-8 (KSHV/HHV-8) was identified as the etiologic agent for KS. KSHV is believed to infect and immortalize endothelial cells, thereby generating the KS tumor (or spindle) cell. Molecular characterization of the KSHV genome by numerous laboratories has since revealed several genes that harbor potential for KSHV pathogenesis. Examination of candidate KSHV oncogenes is shedding new light onto the cause of this enigmatic tumor and has further provided considerable insight into the complex interplay among angiogenic growth factors, endothelial cells, and cancer.
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This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.