Sprouting and Intussusception Two Complementary Angiogenic Mechanisms

Structural investigations have revealed that the vascula-ture of different organs of chicks and rats, such as CAM, lung, heart, endometrium, eye, kidney, and yolk sac, undergoes two main phases of development. The early, sprouting phase is characterized by the appearance of multiple capillary sprouts, which are responsible together with

Figure 4 Drawing representing intussusceptive branching remodeling (IBR). The insertion of transluminal pillars at branching points is followed by their merging with the connective tissue in the branching angle (arrows). This process allows to adapt the depth of the branching angle and the diameters of the two daughter vessels. Moreover, intussusceptive branching remodeling leads to vascular pruning by repetitive eccentric formation, thickening, and fusion of pillars (arrowheads). Adapted from Djonov et al. 2000 [5], with the authors' and publisher's permission.

Figure 4 Drawing representing intussusceptive branching remodeling (IBR). The insertion of transluminal pillars at branching points is followed by their merging with the connective tissue in the branching angle (arrows). This process allows to adapt the depth of the branching angle and the diameters of the two daughter vessels. Moreover, intussusceptive branching remodeling leads to vascular pruning by repetitive eccentric formation, thickening, and fusion of pillars (arrowheads). Adapted from Djonov et al. 2000 [5], with the authors' and publisher's permission.

vasculogenesis for tissue neovascularization, forming the primary capillary plexuses. During the second, intussusceptive phase, capillary sprouting is superseded by pillar formation. Further vascular growth and remodeling occurs by intussusception as a result of advantages listed in the section on hallmarks of intussusception.

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