Section J Inflammation Chapter 106

Free Radicals and Lipid Signaling in Microvascular Endothelial Cells 721

Peter B. Anning and Valerie B. O'Donnell Introduction

Prostaglandin H synthases-1 and -2 in ECs Lipoxygenases in ECs CYP Enzymes in ECs

Generation of Free Radical Species by PGHS or LOX and CYP

Regulation of PGHS, LOX, and CYP by Reactive Oxygen and Nitrogen Species Conclusions Summary

Chapter 107

Eicosanoids 727

Monica M. Bertagnolli

Introduction: History and Definitions Converting Membrane Components into Signaling Molecules

Keeping the Balance: Implications for Health and Disease Activity and Specificity of Inhibitors of Arachidonic Acid

Metabolism Conclusion

Chapter 108

Sepsis and the Microvasculature 735

Alpha A. Fowler, III Sepsis Epidemiology

Nitric Oxide Induces Microcirculatory Dysfunction Lipopolysaccharide Entry into the Circulation and Cytokine Transcription Promote Microvascular Dysfunction in Sepsis Apoptosis of Endothelium in Sepsis Adhesion Molecules Orchestrate Neutrophil Sequestration Sepsis Induces Microvascular Thrombosis and Produces

Poor Clinical Outcomes Conclusions

Chapter 109

Interaction of C1q with the

Endothelium: Relevance to

Inflammation 741

Berhane Ghebrehiwet and Ellinor I. B. Peerschke

The Endothelium and Inflammation

The Endothelial Cell Surface and C1q Receptors

Clq-Mediated Endothelial Cell Responses: Role of C1q and HK Regulation of the Endothelium

Chapter 110

The Microvasculature in

Inflammatory Bowel Disease 745

Ossama A. Hatoum and David G. Binion

Introduction

The Role of the Microvasculature and Endothelial-Leukocyte Interaction in Chronic Intestinal Inflammation The Role of Microvascular Dysfunction and Tissue

Ischemia in Chronic Intestinal Inflammation Summary

Chapter 111

pathophysiology of Edema Formation 749

Dan D. Hershko and Michael M. Krausz

Hemodynamic Aspects of Edema Formation Inflammatory Aspects of Edema Formation Idiopathic Edema

Chapter 112

Endothelium in Malarial Infection:

More Than an Innocent Bystander 755

May Ho, Bryan G. Yipp, and Stephen M. Robbins

Introduction

Plasmodium falciparum Malaria

Cytoadherence

CD36

PfEMPl and Recombinant 179 Peptides

CD36-Mediated Intracellular Signaling

CD36 Signaling via Src-family Kinases Modulates IRBC

Adhesion Downstream Signaling Events Possible Role of Other Receptor Molecules Other Signaling Events Triggered by P falciparum

Chapter 113

Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury 761

Shahrul I. Ibrahim, Rodney K. Chan, and Herbert B. Hechtman

Introduction

Events Occurring during Ischemia-Reperfusion Overview of Inflammation

Neutrophils and Free Radicals in Ischemia-Reperfusion. Overview of the Complement System Complement Activation by Immune Complexes during Reperfusion

Binding of the Ischemia Antigen by Natural Antibodies Current Controversies

Clinical Use of Complement Inhibitors in Reperfusion Injury

The Future: Mast Cells and Substance P Conclusion

Chapter 114

Endothelial Xanthine Oxidoreductase and Vascular Disease 769

Usamah S. Kayyali and Paul M. Hassoun Introduction

Biology and Function of Xanthine Oxidoreductase Xanthine Oxidoreductase in Endothelial Cells Regulation of Xanthine Oxidoreductase in Health and Disease

Relation to Other Reactive Oxygen Producers

XOR and Models of Injury

Xanthine Oxidoreductase: An Enigmatic Enzyme

Chapter 115

Antecedent Ethanol Ingestion Prevents

Postischemic Microvascular

Dysfunction 777

Ronald J. Korthuis Introduction

Microvascular Consequences of Ischemia-Reperfusion Anti-inflammatory Effects Induced by Ethanol Ingestion Signaling Mechanisms That Induce the Adaptive Transformation to a Protected Phenotype in the Microcirculation after Ethanol Ingestion P-Selectin Expression as a Molecular End Target of Ethanol Preconditioning

Chapter 116

Microvascular Dysfunction in Inflammatory Bowel Disease 783

F. Stephen Laroux and Matthew B. Grisham Introduction

Organization of the Intestinal and Colonic Microcirculation: Anatomical and Functional Considerations Arteriolar and Capillary Alterations Associated with IBD Venular Alterations in IBD

Chapter 117

Analytical Approaches to Leukocyte-Endothelium Interactions 791

Lance L. Munn

Introduction

Margination

Contact

Rolling

Arrest

CHAPTER 118

Microvascular Responses to

Eicosanoids 795

Mauro Perretti and Derek W. Gilroy

Arachidonic Acid Metabolism

Prostaglandins

Leukotrienes

Lipoxins

Chapter 119

Oxidants and Vascular Signaling Mechanisms 801

Michael S. Wolin

Importance of Oxidant Signaling Mechanisms in the

Microcirculation Sources of Oxidant Species

Mechanisms of Interactions of Oxidant Species with

Vascular Signaling Systems Physiological Importance of Vascular Oxidant Signaling Roles of Oxidant Signaling Mechanisms in Microvascular Function

Chapter 120

Reactive Oxygen Species and

The Microcirculation 805

John G. Wood and Norberto C. Gonzalez

Microvascular Responses to Oxidative Stress Sources of ROS

Endogenous Defenses against ROS Ischemia/Reperfusion-Induced Microvascular

Inflammation Microvascular Responses to Systemic Hypoxia Summary

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