Section D Permeability Tone and Hemodynamics

Chapter 31

Regulation of Microvascular

Permeability 203

D. O. Bates Introduction

Microvascular Permeability to Water: Hydraulic

Conductivity (Lp). Microvascular Permeability to Solutes Normal—or Baseline—Vascular Permeability Agonist-Mediated Increased Vascular Permeability

Chapter 32

Regulation of Vascular Endothelial Cell Signal Transduction and Phenotype by Mechanical Factors 209

Konstantin G. Birukov

Mechanical Forces Acting on Vascular Endothelium Mechanosensors and Signal Transduction Pathways Effect of Mechanical Stimulation on Endothelial

Phenotype and Gene Expression Profile Concluding Remarks

Chapter 33 Autacoid Production by Hemodynamic Forces

Ingrid Fleming

Autacoid Production by Hemodynamic Forces Endothellum-Derived Autacoids Hemodynamic Forces and the Endothelium Integration of the Vascular Response (Ascending Dilatation)

Chapter 34

Ion channels and Arteriolar Tone

William F. Jackson Introduction

Ion Channels Expressed in Arterioles Membrane Potential and Arteriolar Tone at Rest Ion Channels and Vasoconstriction Ion Channels and Vasodilation Ion Channels and Disease States

Chapter 35

Roles of Nitric Oxide in the Microcirculation

Michelle I. Lin and William C. Sessa

Introduction NO and Vasodilation

NO and the Homeostasis of the Blood Cell Interaction with the Vessel Wall Role of NO in Regulating Vascular Permeability Conclusions

Chapter 36

Rheology of Blood Flow in the Microcirculation 233

Herbert H. Lipowsky Introduction

Microvascular Hematocrit

Apparent Viscosity

Red Cell Aggregation

Blood Cell Deformability

Resistance to Blood Flow in Microvessels

Chapter 37

Endothelial Ca2+ and Endothelium-Derived Hyperpolarizing Factor (EDHF)-Mediated Vasodilatation 239

Sean P. Marrelli

The Endothelium as a Modulator of Vascular Tone An Additional Mechanism of Vasodilatation, EDHF Mechanism of EDHF-Mediated Vasodilatation Role of KCa Channels in EDHF-Mediated Dilation Role of Endothelial [Ca2+]i in EDHF-Mediated

Vasodilatation How Does Elevated Endothelial [Ca2+]i Produce

Vasodilatation? A Relationship between Endothelial Membrane Potential

(Vm) and Endothelial [Ca2+]i? Role of Endothelial [Ca2+]i in EDHF-Mediated Responses in Pathology

Summary of Endothelial [Ca2+]i in EDHF-Mediated Vasodilatation

Chapter 38

Role of the Endothelial Cell Cytoskeleton in Microvascular Function 247

Laura Linz McGillem and Joe G. N. Garcia Introduction

Microfilament Cytoskeleton Overview Endothelial Cell MLCK Isoform Rho Family GTPases and the Cytoskeleton Microtubule Cytoskeleton Overview Microtubules and Vascular Barrier Function Microtubules and Response to Shear Stress Microtubules and Tube Formation Intermediate Filament Cytoskeleton Overview Mechanical Strain, Shear Stress, and Flow Intermediate Filaments and Microvascular Endothelial

Cell-Cell Junctions Intermediate Filaments and Microvascular Endothelial

Cell-Matrix Junctions Summary

Chapter 39

Microvascular Permeability

Introduction

Permeability Coefficients

Permeability Coefficients of Microvessels in Different

Tissues and Their Interpretation Permeability and Exchange of Fluid and Solute between Blood and Tissues under Physiological Conditions

Chapter 40

TNF-a-Induced Pulmonary Endothelial

Permeability: The Role of the

Microtubule Cytoskeleton 261

Irina Petrache, Anna A. Birukova, and Alexander D. Verin

Endothelial Barrier Function Tumor Necrosis Factor-a Microtubules

The Role of the Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) Pathway

Chapter 41

Vasoactive Signals and Pericyte

Function in the Retina 265

Donald G. Puro

Role of Pericytes in Blood Flow Regulation Regulation of Pericyte Contractility Effects of Vasoactive Signals on Pericyte Physiology Pericyte Pathobiology

Chapter 42

Regulation of Microvascular

Hydraulic Conductivity 271

Rolando E. Rumbaut and Virginia H. Huxley Introduction

Forces Regulating Transvascular Water Movement Pathways for Volume Flux across Microvascular Walls Assessment of Transvascular Water Movement in Vivo Regulation of Hydraulic Conductivity Summary

Chapter 43

The Role of Gap Junctions in the Regulation of Arteriolar Tone 275

Structure and Regulation of Gap Junctions Expression of Gap Junctions in Vascular Tissue Involvement of Gap Junctions in Responses Affecting

Arteriolar Tone Conclusions

Chapter 44

Vascular Control Mechanisms in

Skeletal Muscle 281

Ingrid H. Sarelius

I. Microvascular Network Organization in Skeletal Muscle

II. The Cells of the Arteriolar Wall

III. Differential Responses of Large versus Small Arterioles

IV Metabolic Regulation of Arteriolar Tone

V Integration of Metabolic Response Pathways

VI. Control of Capillary Recruitment

VII. Venular-Arteriolar Communication Summary

Chapter 45

Protein Kinases and Microvascular Permeability 287

Mack H. Wu and Sarah Y. Yuan

Myosin Light-Chain Kinase (MLCK) Protein Kinase C (PKC)

cAMP- and cGMP-Dependent Protein Kinases (PKA and PKG)

Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases (MAPKs) Nonreceptor Protein Tyrosine Kinases (PTKs) Summary

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Essentials of Human Physiology

Essentials of Human Physiology

This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.

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