Section B Vascular Development Vasculogenesis and Angiogenesis

Chapter 14

Role of Platelet-Derived Growth

Factors in the Microvasculature 85

Christer Betsholtz and Holger Gerhardt

Summary Introduction

Roles of PDGFs in the Microvasculature Revealed by

Genetic Studies Pericyte Density and Its Relationship to Organ Pathology

Chapter 15

Basic Concepts of Intussusceptive Angiogenesis 91

Valentin Djonov and Peter H. Burri

Sprouting and Intussusceptive Angiogenesis The Basic Concept of Intussusception Hallmarks of Intussusception Three Facets of Intussusceptive Angiogenesis Sprouting and Intussusception: Two Complementary

Angiogenic Mechanisms Summary

Chapter 16

Vascular Permeability Factor/ Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VPF/VEGF, VEGF-A) 97

Harold F. Dvorak VEGF-A Structure

VEGF-A Receptors and Signaling Pathways Biological Activities

Expression of VEGF-A in Normal Physiology and in Pathology Regulation of VEGF-A Expression The New Blood Vessels Induced by VEGF-A Clinical significance of VEGF-A

Chapter 17

Endothelial Progenitor Cells, Vasculogenesis, and Their Contribution to New Blood Vessel Formation in the Adult 105

John Glod and Howard A. Fine Introduction

Mature Endothelial Cells in the Circulation Endothelial Progenitor Cells from the Bone Marrow Isolation and Characterization of Circulating Endothelial

Progenitors from Adult Peripheral Blood Contribution of Circulating Cells to Neovasculature Factors That Influence the Numbers of Circulating

Endothelial Progenitors Are Circulating Cells Critical to the Formation of

New Vasculature? Clinical Studies Using Bone Marrow-Derived Cells to

Augment Neovascularization Using Bone Marrow-Derived Cells in Antiangiogenic

Strategies Conclusion

Chapter 18

Pericytes and Microvascular Morphogenesis 111

Ira M. Herman


Microvascular Morphogenesis

Receptor Kinases Regulate Microvascular Growth and

Differentiation Pathologic Angiogenesis: Recapitulation of Microvascular

Development The Isoactin Network Drives Retinal Microvascular

Morphogenesis Rho GTPases Signal Isoactin-Dependent Cytoskeletal Remodeling

Chapter 19

PDGF-B and Pericyte Recruitment 117

Michael J. Jarzynka and Shi-Yuan Cheng

Vasculogenesis and Angiogenesis Platelet-Derived Growth Factor PDGF-B, Pericyte Recruitment, and Vessel Maturation The Role of PDGF-B in Tumor Angiogenesis and Progression

Chapter 20

VEGF Regulation of Morphogenesis 121

Thomas J. Poole and Eric B. Finkelstein

Origins of the Embryonic Vascular Pattern

Angioblast Induction


Embryonic Angiogenesis

Other Functions of VEGF in Morphogenesis


Chapter 21

The Two-Phase Model for Angiogenesis Regulation by the Extracellular Matrix 127

James D. San Antonio and Renato V. Iozzo Introduction

Phase I: Maintenance of Quiescence by the Basement Membrane

The Transition Between the Matrix Phases: Growth Factors and MMPs Provide the One-Two Punch Phase II: Induction of Capillary Morphogenesis by the

Interstitial Matrices, Fibrillar Collagens or Fibrin Tissue Engineering of the Microvasculature: The ECM

Holds the Key ECM Templates for Microvascular Engineering Rational Engineering and Use of Angiogenic Polymers

Chapter 22

Pericytes and Glial Cells and

Vascular Development 137

Stanley A. Vinores and John D. Ash




Essentials of Human Physiology

Essentials of Human Physiology

This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.

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