Section B Central Nervous System and

Chapter 57

The Vasculature of Choroid 369

Imran A. Bhutto and Gerard A. Lutty Gross Anatomy

The Choroidal Vasculature and Associated Structures

Visualization of the Choroidal Vasculature


Cell Biology



Chapter 58

The Role of the Cytoskeleton in Barrier Function of the Microvasculature 375

Steven M. Dudek and James H. Finigan Introduction

Overview of the Cytoskeleton

Regulation of Permeability by the Endothelial Cell

Cytoskeleton Differential Regulation of Permeability in the Microvasculature

Chapter 59

Microcirculation of the Brain 381

Frank M. Faraci and Donald D. Heistad

Endothelium and the Blood-Brain Barrier Endothelium and Vascular Tone Potassium Channels

Endothelium-Derived Contracting Factor Reactive Oxygen and Nitrogen Species Angiotensin II

Chapter 60

Model Systems for Studying

Blood-Brain Barrier Function 385

Monodimensional Models of the Blood-Brain Barrier:

Endothelial Cells Bidimensional Models of the Blood-Brain Barrier:

Co-culture of Endothelial Cells and Glia Tridimensional Dynamic Models of the Blood-Brain

Barrier (Flow-Based) Cell Lines versus Primary Cultures In Vitro Models of the Human Blood-Brain Barrier Conclusions

Chapter 61

Adrenomedullin and Blood-Brain

Barrier Function 391

Bela Kis

AM, a Vasoactive Hormone

Role of AM in the Microcirculation

AM Production in the Cerebral Microcirculation

AM Receptors in the Cerebral Microcirculation

Role of AM in Blood-Brain Barrier Functions


Chapter 62

Cerebral Microvascular Blood Oxygenation and Neuronal Activity 395

Ute Lindauer Abstract

Introduction: Definition of the Subject

Cerebral Blood Oxygen Tension and Hemoglobin Oxygen

Saturation at Rest Cerebral Microvascular Blood Flow Changes during

Functional Activation Cerebral Microvascular Blood Oxygenation Changes during Increased Neuronal Activity Spatial Resolution of Cerebral Microvascular Blood Flow and Blood Oxygenation Changes during Neuronal Activation

Cerebral Microvascular Blood Oxygenation Changes during Increased Inhibition or Cortical Deactivation Summary

Chapter 63

The Retina Microvasculature 401

Ming Lu and Anthony P. Adamis




Chapter 64

Nitric Oxide and Blood-Brain

Barrier Function 405

William G. Mayhan

Concept of a Blood-Brain Barrier Nitric Oxide Synthases

Role of Nitric Oxide in Basal Integrity of the Blood-Brain Barrier

Role of Nitric Oxide in Stimuli-Induced Changes in the

Blood-Brain Barrier Cellular Mechanisms for the Effects of Nitric Oxide on the

Blood-Brain Barrier Summary and Conclusions

Chapter 65

Fatty Acids Induce Tight Junctions in Brain Capillary Endothelial Cells 411

Kazuo Yamagata, Motoki Tagami, Yasuo Nara, Shingo Itoh, Hidehiko Yokogoshi, and Yukio Yamori


Overview: Tight Junction and Fatty Acids Metabolism and Supply of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids to

Brain Capillary Endothelial Cells Regulation of Tight Junction Formation by Fatty Acids Conclusion

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Essentials of Human Physiology

Essentials of Human Physiology

This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.

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