Departments of Surgical Research and Pathology, Vascular Biology Program, Children s Hospital and Harvard Medical School,
The development, patterning, and stabilization of the vasculature depends on several key steps, including the proliferation and migration of endothelial cells (EC) and the differentiation and recruitment of their supportive mural cells. These processes are regulated by the surrounding cells and tissues that secrete various growth factors, cytokines, and chemokines that activate EC receptors. It has been recently recognized that one of these EC receptors is neu-ropilin (NRP). Neuropilins (NRP1 and NRP2) are receptors for the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) family, members of which are potent regulators of EC migration, EC proliferation, and angiogenesis. Previously, it was shown that VEGFs act via VEGF receptor tyrosine kinases, but it now appears that VEGF activity is also modulated by NRPs, which have no kinase activity. This article focuses on the role of NRPs in the vasculature and describes NRP structure, gene expression, regulation, and biological function.
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This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.