During inflammation a plethora of mediators are released. These mediators attract neutrophils, macrophages and other leukocytes to the site of inflammation. Proinflammatory cytokines like TNF-a, IL-1b, and IL-6 are the key mediators of the inflammatory reaction. Tissue injury triggers the synthesis and release of these cytokines. The proinflammatory cytokines may act locally, but in higher concentrations these factors also act systemically. The cytokine response to surgical trauma is correlated to the degree and duration of surgical trauma. Normal inflammatory response will enable the host to recover from trauma, but will become detrimental if the balance between mediators of the inflammatory response is lost.
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This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.