Output

Soluble Mediator: growth factors cytokines chemokines LPS ROS

Nucleotides

Achfepinephrine

Serine proteases Cells ECM Hypoxia

Shear stress 1st rain Temperature pH

Input

Output

Shape

Protein mRNA

Differentiation

Migration

Proliferation

Permeability Apoptosis

Leukocyte trafficking: ECM

coagulation Angiogenesis Vasomotor tone EC heterogeneity

Figure 1 The endothelial cell as an input-output device. Input arises from the extracellular environment and includes a combination of biomechanical and biochemical signals (left). The output, or cellular phenotype (right), may be expressed at the level of single endothelial cells or at higher levels of organization (e.g., blood vessel, organ, or whole organism). The device itself—depicted here as a "black box"—contains a highly complex array of signal transduction pathways that couple input with output. (see color insert)

(albeit nonlinear) input-output relationship, the properties of the single cell do not predict for behavior of the whole capillary, heart or organism. An important challenge in vascular biology—whatever the vascular bed of interest—is to learn how to integrate the results of studies at the reductionist and holistic ends of the biomedical spectrum to understand the role for the endothelium in health and disease.

Essentials of Human Physiology

Essentials of Human Physiology

This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.

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