Vascular endothelial cells are exposed to constant physiological shear stress from blood flow. Microtubules contribute to the stability of microvascular cells via intracellular distribution changes concomitant with EC migration and motility. Within the endothelial cell in an intact quiescent monolayer, microtubules are distributed in an extensive array radiating from the centrosome, or MT organizing center (MTOC), which is randomly oriented around the nucleus. Stress on the monolayer, such as wounding or fluid shear, is accompanied by alterations in the MT network distribution such as temporary displacement of the MTOC and realignment of the microtubules . Shear stress also causes EC to undergo morphological changes such as lamel-lipodia extension and directional migration that appear to require active MT dynamics. Chemical stabilization of MT depolymerization causes a reduction in EC migration, as well as attenuated lamellipodial protrusion in response to flow.
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This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.