DNA microarrays are a powerful tool for monitoring thousands of transcript levels simultaneously. However, many transcripts important to function have low expression levels or are expressed in relatively few cells, making them difficult to detect in the complex background of whole tissue. Thus, more reliable results may be obtained using cultured cells than tissue samples. In addition, gene chips generally only reliably detect medium- to high-abundance transcripts because detection of low-abundance transcripts, many of which have great relevance to biological function, is inconsistent. Thus, it may still be necessary to identify low-abundance transcripts important for cell-type or tissue-type function by alternative methods, such as by subtractive hybridization or differential display approaches. Finally, it is essential to confirm experimental conclusions derived from data generated by array analysis using additional, more sensitive methods, such as real-time polymerase chain reaction technology.
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This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.