Konstantin G Birukov

Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland.

Vascular endothelial cells play significant roles in regulating vascular functions in health and disease. Mechanical forces such as shear stress and cyclic stretch sequentially activate mechanosensors, intracellular signaling pathways, specific transcription factors, cytoskeletal remodeling, and the expression of genes and proteins and, as result, profoundly modulate endothelial cell functions. This article describes the nature of mechanical forces acting on vascular endothe-lium in physiological conditions and pathological settings and discusses signaling pathways of mechanotransduction, as well as the effects of physiological and pathological mechanostimulation on gene expression patterns in vascular endothelium.

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Essentials of Human Physiology

Essentials of Human Physiology

This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.

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