The constellation of mRNAs that are selectively and differentially expressed in a cell or tissue is a critical determinant of its specific structure or function. Microarray technology has transformed the study of biology by permitting the analysis of the global pattern of mRNA expressed in cells and tissues of interest. This technology has resulted in novel insights into cell and tissue function. mRNAs expressed are reverse transcribed into labeled cDNA probes, which are then hybridized onto glass slides, more commonly known as gene chips, and analyzed in chip readers. This genome-wide transcriptional profiling of individual cell types allows the identification of genes that are expressed preferentially in one cell type as compared to another. In addition, genes that are responsive to external stimuli in a cell type-specific response can also be identified. This article summarizes DNA microarray technology and its applications and includes a summary of recent uses of DNA microarray technology to study the microvasculature.

Essentials of Human Physiology

Essentials of Human Physiology

This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.

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