Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is associated with the development of micro- and macrovascular disease, which represents the major cause of morbidity and mortality among these patients.
Diabetic angiopathy in children and adolescents is represented mainly by microangiopathy, characterized by structural changes in the eye and renal glomeruli, whereas macroangiopathy consists of an accelerated form of atherosclerosis that increases the risk of cardiovascular disease.
The pathogenesis of diabetic angiopathy is not clear and the progression, in most cases is unpredictable. The vascular endothelium is a primary target of unbalanced glycemic metabolism in both T1DM and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Several studies have shown that endothelial dysfunction is associated with the development of diabetic micro- and macrovascular complications and, in particular, may explain the link between microalbuminuria and the risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease.
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