Acute lung injury (ALI) is observed in various serious conditions such as sepsis, multiple trauma, pneumonia, and smoke inhalation. ALI is defined as a Pao2 (partial arterial oxygen pressure)/Fio2 (fractional concentration of inspired oxygen) ratio of less than 300. The decrease in Pao2/Fio2 ratio is observed because of the alveolar wall thickness (pulmonary edema) and ventilation-perfusion mismatching. The microvascular responses involve the major part of the pathophysiology . In this review, we focus on the various factors that play a role in the microvascular responses associated with ALI.
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This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.