No single cellular organizational element has commanded so much attention in the endothelial cell recently as the group of proteins known as the cytoskeleton. As depicted in Figure 1, the endothelial cytoskeleton is involved in multiple critical endothelial biologic processes including angiogenesis, mechanotransduction, apoptosis, and critical elements of the inflammatory response including leukocyte diapedisis and barrier regulation. The cytoskeleton is composed of three primary elements—actin microfilaments, intermediate filaments, and microtubules. Each will be discussed in the context of microvascular endothelial activation and dysfunction.
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This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.