Vascular endothelial growth factor is a glycoprotein, which shares homology with platelet-derived growth factor and placenta growth factor (PlGF). It is a macromolecule that has recently attracted attention as a potent inducer of vascular permeability and angiogenesis. VEGF has also been known as vascular permeability factor. Other possible, but less-studied, roles include lymphangiogenesis, hypoten-sive effects in vivo, and stimulation of tissue factor production and monocyte chemotaxis.
VEGF has been found to stimulate angiogenesis and has an important role in the development of embryonic blood vessels. This has been confirmed by findings that the inacti-vation of a VEGF gene in mice can lead to impairment of angiogenesis and vasculogenesis. While angiogenesis is regulated by many cytokines and growth factors such as transforming growth factor-a (TGF-a), transforming growth factor-b (TGF-b), hepatocyte growth factor, tumor necrosis factor-a (TNF-a), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), angio-genin, and interleukin-8 (IL-8), VEGF is considered to be among its most potent inducers.
Periodontal disease is an infection of highly vascularized supporting tissues of the teeth usually leading to loss of bone and periodontal ligament. Persistent granulation and aberrant angiogenesis in gingiva have often been observed in periodontal disease, and these phenomena may contribute significantly to its pathogenesis. There is probably an association of VEGF with the pathogenesis of periodontal disease, particularly disorder in infected gingiva, which is accompanied by heavy neovascularization. Furthermore, in the recovery phase of inflamed periodontal tissue, sufficient supply of blood and angiogenesis is required. Therefore, VEGF might be useful for the cure of that tissue.
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This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.