The retinal vasculature consists of a single layer of vascular endothelial cells, arranged to form a lumen, which are ensheathed by pericytes. In the superficial retina, these vessel structures are then ensheathed by astrocytic processes. Each cell layer is separated by a negatively charged basement membrane (Figure 1). In the deeper retina, Müller cells, rather than astrocytes, participate in the formation of the perivascular sheath. Through mechanisms that are not entirely clear, the growth, maturation, and permeability of retinal vessels are dependent on the growth and maturation of pericytes and astrocytes. A significant amount of work has been directed at determining the roles of these supporting cell types in retinal development and homeostasis, and what follows is a brief summary of the current progress. To focus this discussion, we have only included what is known for humans, mice, and rats.

Blood Pressure Health

Blood Pressure Health

Your heart pumps blood throughout your body using a network of tubing called arteries and capillaries which return the blood back to your heart via your veins. Blood pressure is the force of the blood pushing against the walls of your arteries as your heart beats.Learn more...

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