"White blood" was first described in ancient times (Hippocrates, ca. 460-377 BC; Aristotle, 384-322 BC). Herophilus (about 300 BC) and Erasistratos (about 330-250 BC) also knew something about gut lymphatics, marked with natural fatty substances, without understanding their function. Pecquet (1651) was the first to discover the lymphatics and the ductus thoracicus in human. The first comprehensive overviews of the lymphatic vessels originated from T. Bartholinus (1653, 1657), O. Rudbeck (1653, 1654), and Hunter (1752). Bartholinus established the term "lymph" and described it as a clear watery liquid. In the 17th and 18th centuries, lymph was understood as a nutritional fluid and a source of harm or illness ("Fons aegritudinum," Mascagni, 1787). Each swelling of lymph nodes was diagnosed as a stagnation of the "bad nutritive fluids." Von Recklinghausen (1860) and Hoyer (1865) demonstrated the endothelial nature of the inner surface of lymphatics by means of silver nitrate solutions. Ludwig (1858) and Starling (1908) described the lymph as a filtrate from the blood via the capillaries and demonstrated the connection between hydrostatic and osmotic pressure in the exchange of substances between blood and lymph. The school of C. K. Drinker ([1-3] and so on) and the group around I. Rusznyak ([4] and so on) created the basis of modern research in the lymphatic system.

Essentials of Human Physiology

Essentials of Human Physiology

This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.

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