History

"White blood" was first described in ancient times (Hippocrates, ca. 460-377 BC; Aristotle, 384-322 BC). Herophilus (about 300 BC) and Erasistratos (about 330-250 BC) also knew something about gut lymphatics, marked with natural fatty substances, without understanding their function. Pecquet (1651) was the first to discover the lymphatics and the ductus thoracicus in human. The first comprehensive overviews of the lymphatic vessels originated from T. Bartholinus (1653, 1657), O. Rudbeck (1653, 1654), and Hunter (1752). Bartholinus established the term "lymph" and described it as a clear watery liquid. In the 17th and 18th centuries, lymph was understood as a nutritional fluid and a source of harm or illness ("Fons aegritudinum," Mascagni, 1787). Each swelling of lymph nodes was diagnosed as a stagnation of the "bad nutritive fluids." Von Recklinghausen (1860) and Hoyer (1865) demonstrated the endothelial nature of the inner surface of lymphatics by means of silver nitrate solutions. Ludwig (1858) and Starling (1908) described the lymph as a filtrate from the blood via the capillaries and demonstrated the connection between hydrostatic and osmotic pressure in the exchange of substances between blood and lymph. The school of C. K. Drinker ([1-3] and so on) and the group around I. Rusznyak ([4] and so on) created the basis of modern research in the lymphatic system.

Blood Pressure Health

Blood Pressure Health

Your heart pumps blood throughout your body using a network of tubing called arteries and capillaries which return the blood back to your heart via your veins. Blood pressure is the force of the blood pushing against the walls of your arteries as your heart beats.Learn more...

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