In summary, microarray technology creates an exciting new challenge in experimental design and control and in data handling and interpretation. However, the power of this technology is its ability to assign previously unknown genes to functions and to discover new functions for known genes or in clinical medicine to identify targets around which to develop cell-type specific therapies. The place of microarray technology in the whole lexicon of molecular and genetic approaches is not yet fully developed or defined. However, microarray systems can be expected to invigorate research into the microvasculature for many years to come.
Expression profiling: Using gene microarray or gene chip technology to assess the overall transcriptional state of a cell or tissue.
Gene chip: A silicon or glass slide upon which cDNA or oligonucleotides have been placed, also known as a microarray.
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Cheung, V. G., Morley, M., Aguilar, F., Massimi, A., Kucherlapati, R., and Childs, G. (1999). Making and reading microarrays. Nat. Genet. 21S, 15-19.
Duggan, D. J., Bittner, M., Chen, Y., Meltzer, P., and Trent, J. M. (1999). Expression profiling using cDNA microarrays. Nat. Genet. 21S, 10-14.
A good review focusing on the general principles of cDNA microarray technology.
Evans, S. J., Datson, N. A., Kabbaj, M., Thompson, R. C., Vreugdenhil, E., De Kloet, E. R., Watson, S. J., and Akil, H. (2002). Evaluation of Affymetrix Gene Chip sensitivity in rat hippocampal tissue using SAGE analysis. Serial Analysis of Gene Expression. Eur. J. Neurosci. 16, 409-413.
Ferea, T. L., Botstein, D., Brown, P. O., and Rosenzweig, R. F. (1999). Systematic changes in gene expression patterns following adaptive evolution in yeast. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 96, 9721-9726. Gaasterlaand, T., and Baikaranov, S. (2000). Making the most of microarray data. Nat. Genet. 24, 204-206. A concise review highlighting the latest advances in computational analysis of microarray data. Lander, E. S. (1999). Array of hope. Nat. Genet. 21S, 3-4. A well written review on the strengths and limitations of microarray technology from one of the pioneers of the human genome project.
Dr. Leask is currently Visiting Lecturer in the Centre of Rheumatology, Royal Free and University College Medical School, London. Prior to that, he was Senior Scientist at FibroGen, Inc., San Francisco, CA. His research interest is the molecular control of fibrosis, including the roles of connective tissue growth factor, TGF|3 and endothelin in this process. Dr. Leask was born in Vancouver, B.C., Canada, and received his undergraduate degree (First Class) at the University of British Columbia and his Ph.D. at the University of Chicago. He was a Medical Research Council of Canada Postdoctoral Fellow at Stanford University.
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