Conclusion

Recent progress in molecular biology and various gene-modified animals shows numerous interesting results. However, we need to be careful about the anatomical differences in those small animals. In addition, animal models should mimic the clinical situation so that the obtained results are useful in the future clinical trials. In fact, various compounds targeting the microvascular response in ALI have been investigated in both animals and humans. Several clinical trials also begin in the near future.

References

References 2, 4, and 5 are our recent original work. The findings are novel.

Reference 3 is our previous work, which clearly showed the pathophysio-

logically important phenomenon.

1. Traber, D. L., Herndon, D. N., et al. (2002). The pathophysiology of inhalation injury. In Total Burn Care. (D. N. Herndon ed.). pp. 221- 232. London, Edinburgh, New York, Philadelphia, St. Louis, Sydney, Toronto: W.B. Saunders.

2. Shimoda, K., Murakami, K., Enkhbaatar, P., Traber, L. D., Cox, R. A., Hawkins, H. K., Schmalstieg, F. C., Komjati, K., Mabley, J. G., Szabo, C., Salzman, A. L., and Traber, D. L. (2003). Effect of poly(ADP ribose) synthetase inhibition on burn and smoke inhalation injury in sheep. Am. J. Physiol. Lung Cell. Mol. Physiol. 285, L240-L249.

3. Isago, T., Noshima, S., Traber, L. D., Herndon, D. N., and Traber, D. L. (1991). Analysis of pulmonary microvascular permeability after smoke inhalation. J. Appl. Physiol. 71, 1403-1408.

4. Enkhbaatar, P., Murakami, K., Shimoda, K., Mizutani, A., McGuire, R., Schmalstieg, F., Cox, R., Hawkins, H., Jodoin, J., Lee, S., Traber, L., Herndon, D., and Traber, D. (2003). Inhibition of neuronal nitric oxide synthase by 7-nitroindazole attenuates acute lung injury in an ovine model. Am. J. Physiol. Regul. Integr. Comp. Physiol. 285, R366-R372.

5. Enkhbaatar, P., Murakami, K., Shimoda, K., Mizutani, A., Traber, L., Phillips, G. B., Parkinson, J. F., Cox, R., Hawkins, H., Herndon, D., and Traber, D. (2003). The inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibitor BBS-2 prevents acute lung injury in sheep after burn and smoke inhalation injury. Am. J. Respir. Crit, Care Med. 167, 1021-1026.

6. Murakami, K., Bjertnaes, L. J., Schmalstieg, F. C., McGuire, R., Cox, R. A., Hawkins, H. K., Herndon, D. N., Traber, L. D., and Traber, D. L. (2002). A novel animal model of sepsis after acute lung injury in sheep. Crit. Care Med. 30, 2083-2090.

7. Efimova, O., Volokhov, A. B., Iliaifar, S., and Hales, C. A. (2001). Ligation of the bronchial artery in sheep attenuates early pulmonary changes following exposure to smoke. J. Appl. Physiol. 88, 888-893.

8. Tasaki, O., Mozingo, D. W., Ishihara, S., Brinkley, W. W., Johnson, A. A., Smith, R. H., Srivastava, O., Mason, A. D., Jr., Pruitt, B. A., Jr., and Cioffi, W. G., Jr. (1998). Effect of Sulfo Lewis C on smoke inhalation injury in an ovine model. Crit. Care Med. 26, 1238-1243.

9. Katahira, J., Murakami, K., Schmalstieg, F. C., Cox, R., Hawkins, H., Traber, L. D., and Traber, D. L. (2002). Role of anti-L-selectin antibody in burn and smoke inhalation injury in sheep. Am. J. Physiol. Lung Cell. Mol. Physiol. 283, L1043-L1050.

Capsule Biography

Dr. Murakami has been working for Dr. Traber since 1999. He was winner of the Respiratory Specialty Award, Critical Care Medicine, in 2004. His work is supported by the Shriners North America.

Dr. Traber is the Charles Robert Allen Professor of Physiology. A long-term investigator in the area of ARDS, he has more than 300 publication in this area. Dr. Traber has received support for his work from the NIH, The Shriners of North America, and many pharmaceutical companies. He is a holder of the both the Distinguished Alumni and Distinguished Teaching (Inaugural holder) Awards from The Graduate School of Biomedical Science at the University of Texas Medical Branch.

Section O

Organ Transplantation

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