Vascular Biology Program, and Department of Surgery, Children's Hospital, Boston, and Department of Surgery,
Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts
An accumulating body of evidence suggests that the remodeling of the extracellular matrix (ECM) during angio-genesis is accomplished largely through the activity of the matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). MMPs form a large family of metal-dependent proteolytic enzymes, which have been classified on the basis of their substrate (i.e., the ECM components that they degrade) specificity. There are four major classes of MMPs: collagenases, gelatinases, stromelysins, and membrane-type MMPs. The activity of MMPs is the rate-limiting step in ECM turnover. MMP activity is regulated at three different levels: transcription, activation of MMPs from their inactive (latent) proenzyme form, and by the activity of their endogenous inhibitors, the tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinase (TIMPs) .
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This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.