Antiangiogenic Factors

Angiogenesis is under tight negative control and factors are expressed that limit neovascularization in a wound healing or hypoxic response. First, oxygenation status is a powerful determinant. Hyperoxia is a potent inhibitor of EC proliferation, angiogenesis, and the expression of key growth factors including VEGF. Inhibitors of angiogenesis include angiostatin, endostatin, interferon-a/p/g, inter-leukins, platelet factor 4, thrombospondin-1, TIMP, and TNF-a. Some MMPs also act as inhibitors. MMP-1 and MMP-3 interfere with integrin binding and MMP-7 and -9 generate angiostatin from plasminogen, thereby inhibiting EC proliferation. Apoptosis of ECs appears to be a key event that mediates the cessation of angiogenesis.

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Essentials of Human Physiology

Essentials of Human Physiology

This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.

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