lSchool of Dental and Oral Surgery, Columbia University, New York, New York 2College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, New York
Atherosclerosis is a chronic disease of the vasculature in which structural lesions in the form of atherosclerotic plaques may progress to highly unstable lesions susceptible to rupture, clinically manifested as events such as heart attacks and strokes. Hyperlipidemia is classically implicated as the key risk factor leading to generation of fatty streaks, followed often by progression to more complex and unstable plaques. A variety of inflammatory, metabolic, infectious, and hemodynamic states accelerate the development and progression of atherosclerosis. In this review, we will focus on the role of oral—particularly periodontal—infec-tion in modulation of local and systemic inflammation, linked epidemiologically and experimentally to acceleration of vascular dysfunction and atherosclerosis. Underlying mechanisms and the role of modifying conditions such as diabetes will be discussed.
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This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.