The fact that AM behaves as a local autocrine and/or paracrine hormone raises the possibility that AM released by CECs acts primarily on AM receptors present in the cerebral endothelium itself and on neighboring cells. The expression of CRLR, RAMP-1, -2, -3, was characterized on isolated rat cerebral microvessels , in rat CECs and cerebral pericytes , and in rat astrocytes . In cultured rat CECs and peri-cytes RAMP-2 showed the highest expression, followed by RAMP-3 and RAMP-1, and exogenous AM increased the intracellular cAMP concentration suggesting the existence of functional AM receptors on these cells . Although astrocyte-derived factors increased the AM production of rat CECs, they did not change the expression of AM receptor components in rat CECs. Oliver et al.  reported the same expression pattern of RAMPs in human cerebral vasculature.
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This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.