Preparation of Drug Metabolites using Fungal and Bacterial Strains 211

Oreste Ghisalba and Matthias Kittelmann

9.1 Introduction 211

9.2 Phase I Drug-Metabolizing Enzymes 212

9.3 Needs and "Platforms" for the Generation of Drug Metabolites 214

9.3.1 Recombinant Human Cytochrome P450 (rhCYP) Systems (acquired from British Technology Group/University of Dundee) 215

9.3.2 Microbial Strains Performing Oxidative Reactions (in-house technology) 215

9.4 Microbial Models for Oxidative Drug Metabolism 215

9.4.1 2Prokaryotic P450s 218

9.4.2 Microbial Eukaryotic P450s 218

9.5 Correlation of Microbial and Mammalian Oxidative Drug Metabolism 221

9.6 Correlation of Microbial Reactions with Human CYP Isozyme-Specific Reactions 221

9.7 Novartis Research Examples of Microbial Hydroxylations 225

9.7.1 Preparation of 10,11-Epoxy-carbamazepine and 10,11- Dihydro-10 -hydroxy-carbamazepine 225

9.7.2 Preparation of 4-(4'-Hydroxyanilino)-5-anilinophthalimide and 4,5-Bis-(4'-hydroxyanilino)-phthalimide by Microbial Hydroxylation 227

9.8 Microbial Oxidation of Natural Products 228

9.8.1 Microbial Hydroxylation and Epoxidation of Milbemycins 229

9.9 Conclusions 229 References 231

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