Major Hurdles to Further Development from Laboratory Trials

To further develop a laccase catalytic system (from its promising laboratory-level study) may involve many scientific, technical, engineering, economic, environmental, or other hurdles. One major hurdle could be the cost of laccase and/or mediator. To reduce the cost of laccase, higher yield for fermentatively produced laccase or novel laccase productions (see Section 2.4.2) is needed. To reduce the cost of a mediator, controlling its unproductive side-reactions is necessary. For instance, the prohibitively high dosage of the currently best N—OH mediators needed for delignification (—0.1—1% w/w of pulp) is mainly caused by the significant dehydroxylation or deoxygenation side-reaction (>N—OH or >N—O^ ^ >N—H) and the consequent low turnover of the mediator [39, 42, 47, 49, 51, 54, 63, 84]. Another major hurdle could be the inactivation of laccase or mediator in the highly heterogeneous or variable application environment, whose abundant inhibitors/reactants might not be present in defined laboratory systems [58]. The lack of comprehensive knowledge with regard to the environmental impact of the mediator (particularly when it is synthetic) and/or its derivatives may also hinder the application [42, 132].

Heal Yourself With Qi Gong

Heal Yourself With Qi Gong

Qigong also spelled Ch'i Kung is a potent system of healing and energy medicine from China. It's the art and science of utilizing breathing methods, gentle movement, and meditation to clean, fortify, and circulate the life energy qi.

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