The cytochromes P450 (P450s) are an ever-growing family of heme fo-containing monooxygenase enzymes found in all domains of life [1]. The vast majority of this enzyme superfamily catalyze the reductive scission of dioxygen, which is bound to the heme iron. The process requires the consecutive delivery of two electrons to the heme iron, usually mediated by interaction with redox partner enzymes containing flavin or iron-sulfur centers [2]. Ultimately these electrons are almost invariably derived from the nicotinamide coenzymes NADH or NADPH. In order that the potential of P450 enzymes for biotechnologically relevant transformations can be realized, a natural and/or efficient redox partner system must be defined and conditions enabling well-coupled electron transfer and substrate oxygenation established. The identification of appropriate P450 re-dox partners thus brings an additional level of complexity into the system, and the successful exploitation of P450s requires a detailed understanding of mechanism and (where possible) structure of the relevant P450 and its redox partner(s).

The last 10-15 years has seen a dramatic change in our understanding of P450 redox partners, their varied nature, structures and mechanisms. This chapter addresses our current state of knowledge of P450 redox systems and their biological diversity, and also considers the application of different strategies (including chemical and electrode systems) for driving P450 oxygenase systems and enhancing their applications in industrial biotransformations.

Heal Yourself With Qi Gong

Heal Yourself With Qi Gong

Qigong also spelled Ch'i Kung is a potent system of healing and energy medicine from China. It's the art and science of utilizing breathing methods, gentle movement, and meditation to clean, fortify, and circulate the life energy qi.

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