Catalytic Applications of Laccase

Feng Xu, Ture Damhus, Steffen Danielsen, and Lars Henrik 0stergaard

2.1 Properties of Classical Laccase 43

2.1.1 Structure 43

2.1.2 Enzymology 44

2.1.3 4As Industrial Catalysts 46

2.1.3.1 Advantages 46

2.1.3.2 Shortcomings 48

2.2 Applications of Laccase for Industrial Oxidation Processes 48

2.2.1 Laboratory-Level Trials 49

2.2.1.1 Delignification 49

2.2.1.2 Dye and Colorant Bleaching 50

2.2.1.3 Bioremediation 50

2.2.1.4 Other Degradation Applications 51

2.2.1.5 Functional Biotransformation 51

2.2.1.6 Biosensing 53

2.2.1.7 Desirable Application Modes 53

2.2.2 Commercialized Applications 55

2.2.2.1 Preventing Taint in Cork Stoppers 56

2.2.2.2 Denim Bleaching 56

2.2.2.3 Paper Mill Effluent Treatment and Cardboard Strengthening 56

2.2.2.4 Major Hurdles to Further Development from Laboratory Trials 57

2.3 More Recent Developments 57

2.3.1 Novel Laccase Catalytic Systems 57

2.3.1.1 New Laccases 57

2.3.1.2 New Mediators 60

2.3.1.3 Cooperation with Other Enzymes 62

2.3.2 New Leads for Laccase Application 62

2.3.2.1 Laccase-Based Defense Against Biological and Chemical Warfare Agents 62

2.3.2.2 Degradation of PAH, Plastics, or Lipids 63

2.3.2.3 Enzymatic Fuel Cells/Batteries 64

2.3.2.4 Novel Synthetic Applications 65

2.3.2.5 Biorefinery 66

2.4 Further Developing Laccase Catalysis 66 2.4.1 Laccase Engineering 66

2.4.2 Laccase Production 67 References 68

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