Endpoint Force Field Types

Types Electrical Stimulation

FIGURE 4.5 Endpoint force-field types produced by intraspinal myostimulation. All active responses were of one of the types shown flexion withdrawal, rostral flexion, caudal extension, and rostral extension. EMG activity indicated that the fields were produced by coactivation of muscles (knee flexor, knee extensor, ankle flexor, and ankle extensor), rather than by activation of a single muscle. FIGURE 4.5 Endpoint force-field types produced by intraspinal myostimulation. All active responses...

Future Advances in Neural Activation and Muscle Recruitment

Basic research continues in the area of motor control using FES in a search for improved methods of stimulation and control. New electrode designs under research study have centered around direct nerve stimulation.58 The appeal of nerve stimulation is that multiple muscles may be recruited by the same electrode, possibly reducing the number of electrode leads, surgery time, and number of incisions. Also, nerves do not move as much as muscles, possibly resulting in increased lead life and better...

The Role Of Neural Prostheses In Spinal Cord Injury

Clinical care in spinal cord injury has advanced to provide individuals who have sustained spinal cord injury with a nearly normal life span by minimizing the leading causes of death bladder infections and respiratory infections. While these advances have caused a dramatic reduction of morbidity and mortality, advances leading to functional restoration of the individual have been considerably less progressive. In point, conventional restoration of upper extremity function still utilizes...

Introduction

The possibility of interfacing the nervous system with electronic devices has long fascinated scientists, engineers and physicians. In general, an ability to expand the bandwidth of the communication between brain and machine would provide many interesting possibilities, ranging from faster human-computer interfaces to direct remote control (i.e., telekinesis). In medicine, the field of neuroprosthetics has grown rapidly to include a variety of devices for stimulating neural tissue. Chapters...