Adler V, Yin Z, Fuchs SY, Benezra M, Rosario L, Tew KD, Pincus MR, Sardana M, Henderson CJ, Wolf CR, Davis RJ, Ronai Z (1999) Regulation of JNK signaling by GSTp. Embo J 18: 1321-34.

Aithal GP, Day CP, Kesteven PJL, Daly AK (1999) Association of polymorphisms in the cytochrome P450 CYP2C9 with warfarin dose requirement and risk of bleeding complications. Lancet 353: 717-9.

Anderson CC, Matzinger P (2000) Danger: The view from the bottom of the cliff. Semin Immunol 12: 231 — 8; discussion 257—344.

Asscher AW, Parr GD, Whitmarsh VB (1995) Towards the safer use of medicines. Br Med J 311: 1003—5.

Bakke OM, Manocchia M, de-Abajo F, Kaitin KI, Lasagna L (1995) Drug safety discontinuations in the United Kingdom, the United States, and Spain from 1974 through 1993: a regulatory perspective. Clin Pharmacol Ther 58: 108 — 17.

Bates DW, Boyle DL, Vliet MVV, Schneider J, Leape L (1995a) Relationship between medication errors and adverse drug events. J Gen Intern Med 10: 199— 205.

Bates DW, Cullen DJ, Laird N, Petersen LA, Small SD, Servi D, Laffel G, Sweitzer BJ, Shea BF, Hallisey R, Vandervliet M, Nemeskal R, Leape LL (1995b) Incidence of adverse drug events and potential adverse drug events—implications for prevention. Am Med Assoc 274: 29—34.

Bates DW, Spell N, Cullen DJ, Burdick E, Laird N, Petersen LA, Small SD, Sweitzer BJ, Leape LL (1997) The costs of adverse drug events in hospitalized patients. J Am Med Assoc 277: 307—11.

Bayard PJ, Berger TG, Jacobson MA (1992) Drug hypersensitivity reactions and human immunodeficiency virus disease. J AIDS 5: 1237—57.

Beaune PH, Bourdi M (1993) Autoantibodies against cytochrome P-450 in drug-induced autoimmune hepatitis. Ann NY Acad Sci 685: 641—5.

Boelsterli UA (1993) Specific targets of covalent drug-protein interactions in hepatocytes and their toxico-logical significance in drug-induced liver injury. Drug Metab Rev 25: 395—451.

Bombardier C, Laine L, Reicin A, Shapiro D, Burgos-Vargas R, Davis B, Day R, Ferraz MB, Hawkey CJ, Hochberg MC, Kvien TK, Schnitzer TJ (2000) Comparison of upper gastrointestinal toxicity of rofecoxib and naproxen in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. VIGOR Study Group. N Engl J Med 343: 1520—8.

Bray GP (1993) Liver failure induced by paracetamol. Br Med J 306: 157—8.

Brodie M, Feely J (1991) Adverse drug interactions. In: Feely J, ed., New Drugs. London: BMJ, pp. 29—39.

Cardon LR, Idury RM, Harris TJ, Witte JS, Elston RC (2000) Testing drug response in the presence of genetic information: sampling issues for clinical trials [In Process Citation]. Pharmacogenetics 10: 503—10.

Carr A, Cooper DA (1995) Pathogenesis and management of HIV-associated drug hypersensitivity. AIDS Clin Rev 96: 65—97.

Chen Y, Gillis RA, Woosley RL (1991) Block of delayed rectifier potassium current, Ik, by terfenadine in cat ventricular myocytes. J Am Coll Cardiol 17: 140A.

Classen DC, Pestotnik SL, Evans RS, Lloyd JF, Burke JP (1997) Adverse drug events in hospitalized patients. Excess length of stay, extra costs, and attributable mortality. J Am Med Assoc 277: 301-6.

Coles B, Wilson I, Wardman P, Hinson JA, Nelson SD, Ketterer B (1988) The spontaneous and enzymatic reaction of N-acetyl-p-benzoquinonimine with glutathione: a stopped-flow kinetic study. Arch Biochem Biophys 264: 253-60.

Cromheecke ME, Levi M, Colly LP, de Mol BJ, Prins MH, Hutten BA, Mak R, Keyzers KC, Buller HR (2000) Oral anticoagulation self-management and management by a specialist anticoagulation clinic: a randomised cross-over comparison. Lancet 356: 97102.

Curtsinger JM, Schmidt CS, Mondino A, Lins DC, Kedl RM, Jenkins MK, Mescher MF (1999) Inflammatory cytokines provide a third signal for activation of naive CD4 + and CD8 + T cells. J Immunol 162: 3256-62.

D'Arcy PF (1986) Epidemiological aspects of iatrogenic disease. In: D'Arcy PF, Griffin JP, eds, Iatrogenic Diseases. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 29-58.

Descamps V, Valance A, Edlinger C, Fillet AM, Grossin M, Lebrun-Vignes B, Belaich S, Crickx B (2001) Association of human herpesvirus 6 infection with drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms. Arch Dermatol 137: 301 -4.

DeSousa M, Pirmohamed M, Kitteringham NR, Woolf T, Park BK (1998) No association between tacrine transaminitis and the glutathione transferase theta genotype in patients with Alzheimer's disease. Pharmacogenetics 8: 353-5.

Edwards IR, Aronson JK (2000) Adverse drug reactions: definitions, diagnosis, and management. Lancet 356: 1255-59.

Edwards SG, Hubbard V, Aylett S, Wren D (1999) Concordance of primary generalised epilepsy and carbamazepine hypersensitivity in monozygotic twins. Postgrad Med J 75: 680-1.

Einarson TR (1993) Drug-related hospital admissions. Ann Pharmacother 27: 832-40.

Fountoulakis M, Berndt P, Boelsterli UA, Crameri F, Winter M, Albertini S, Suter L (2000) Two-dimensional database of mouse liver proteins: changes in hepatic protein levels following treatment with acetaminophen or its nontoxic regioisomer 3-acetamido-phenol. Electrophoresis 21: 2148-61.

Freeman BD, Zehnbauer BA, McGrath S, Borecki I, Buchman TG (2000) Cytochrome P450 polymorphisms are associated with reduced warfarin dose. Surgery 128: 281-5.

Friedmann PS, Strickland I, Pirmohamed M, Park BK (1994) Investigation of mechanisms in toxic epidermal necrolysis induced by carbamazepine. Arch Dermatol 130: 598-604.

Fromm MF, Kim RB, Stein CM, Wilkinson GR, Roden DM (1999) Inhibition of P-glycoprotein-mediated drug transport: a unifying mechanism to explain the interaction between digoxin and quinidine. Circulation 99: 552-7.

Furst DE, Breedveld FC, Burmester GR, Crofford JJ, Emery P, Feldmann M, Kalden JR, Kavanaugh AF, Keystone EC, Klareskog LG, Lipsky PE, Maini RN, Russell AS, Scott DL, Smolen JS, Van de Putte LB, Visher TL, Weisman MH (2000) Updated consensus statement on tumour necrosis factor blocking agents for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (May 2000). Ann Rheum Dis 59 (Suppl 1): i1 —2.

Furuya H, Fernandez-Salguero P, Gregory W, Taber H, Steward A, Gonzalez FJ, Idle JR (1995) Genetic polymorphism of CYP2C9 and its effect on warfarin maintenance dose requirement in patients undergoing anticoagualtion therapy. Pharmacogenetics 5: 389— 92.

Gaedigk A, Spielberg SP, Grant DM (1994) Characterization of the microsomal epoxide hydrolase gene in patients with anticonvulsant adverse drug reactions. Pharmacogenetics 4: 142—53.

Gallucci S, Matzinger P (2001) Danger signals: SOS to the immune system. Curr Opin Immunol 13: 114—9.

Germann UA (1996) P-glycoprotein—a mediator of multidrug-resistance in tumor-cells. Eur J Cancer 32A, 927—44.

Gibson JD, Pumford NR, Samokyszyn VM, Hinson JA (1996) Mechanism of acetaminophen-induced hepa-totoxicity: covalent binding versus oxidative stress. Chem Res Toxicol 9: 580—5.

Gillette JR, Lau SS, Monks TJ (1984) Intra- and extracellular formation of metabolites from chemically reactive species. Biochem Soc Trans 12: 4—7.

Green VJ, Pirmohamed M, Kitteringham NR, Gaedigk A, Grant DM, Boxer M, Burchell B, Park BK (1995a) Genetic analysis of microsomal epoxide hydrolase in patients with carbamazepine hypersensitivity. Bio-chem Pharmacol 50: 1353—9.

Green VJ, Pirmohamed M, Kitteringham NR, Knapp MJ, Park BK (1995b) Glutathione S-transferase u genotype (GSTM1 *O) in Alzheimer's patients with tacrine transaminitis. Br J Clin Pharmacol 39: 411 — 15.

Haining RL, Hunter AP, Veronese ME, Trager WF, Rettie AE (1996) Allelic variants of human cyto-chrome P450 2C9: baculovirus-mediated expression, purification, structural characterization, substrate stereoselectivity, and prochiral selectivity of the wild-type and I359L mutant forms. Arch Biochem Biophys 333: 447—58.

Hart RG, Sherman DG, Easton JD, Cairns JA (1998) Prevention of stroke in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation. Neurology 51: 674—81.

Hayes JD, Ellis EM, Neal GE, Harrison DJ, Manson MM (1999) Cellular response to cancer chemopre-ventive agents: contribution of the antioxidant responsive element to the adaptive response to oxidative and chemical stress. Biochem Soc Symp 64: 141-68.

Henderson CJ, Wolf CR, Kitteringham N, Powell H, Otto D, Park BK (2000) Increased resistance to acetaminophen hepatotoxicity in mice lacking glu-tathione S-transferase Pi. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 97: 12741-5.

Ingelman-Sundberg M, Oscarson M, McLellan RA (1999) Polymorphic human cytochrome P450 enzymes: an opportunity for individualized drug treatment. Trends Pharmacol Sci 20: 342-9.

Jaeschke H (1990) Glutathione disulfide formation and oxidant stress during acetaminophen-induced hepato-toxicity in mice in vivo: the protective effect of allopurinol. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 255: 935-41.

Jensen PE (1997) Peptide binding and antigen presentation by class I I histocompatibility glycoproteins. Biopolymers 43: 303-22.

Kaminsky LS, Zhang ZY (1997) Human P450 metabolism of warfarin. Pharmacol Ther 73: 67-74.

Kitteringham NR, Powell H, Clement YN, Dodd CC, Tettey JN, Pirmohamed M, Smith DA, McLellan LI, Park BK (2000) Hepatocellular response to chemical stress in CD-1 mice: induction of early genes and gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase. Hepatology 32: 321 -33.

Konig PK, Woosley RL, Zamani K, Conner DP, Cantilena LR (1992) Changes in the pharmacokinetics and electrocardiographic pharmacodynamics of terfe-nadine with concomitant administration of erythro-mycin. Clin Pharmacol Ther 52: 231-38.

Koopmans PP, van der Ven AJAM, Vree TB, van der Meer JWM (1995) Pathogenesis of hypersensitivity reactions to drugs in patients with HIV-infection— allergic or toxic? AIDS 9: 217-22.

Lauterburg BH, Velez ME (1988) Glutathione deficiency in alcoholics: risk factor for paracetamol hepatotoxicity. Gut 29: 1153-7.

Lazarou J, Pomeranz BH, Corey PN (1998) Incidence of adverse drug reactions in hospitalized patients—a meta-analysis of prospective studies. J Am Med Assoc 279: 1200-5.

Lee SST, Buters JTM, Pineau T, Fernandezsalguero P, Gonzalez FJ (1996) Role of cyp2e1 in the hepato-toxicity of acetaminophen. J Biol Chem 271: 12063-7.

Leeder JS (1998) Mechanisms of idiosyncratic hyper-sensitivity reactions to antiepileptic drugs. Epilepsia 39 (Suppl. 7): S8-S16.

Lennard MS, Silas JH, Freestone S, Ramsey LE, Tucker GT, Woods HF (1982) Oxidation phenotype—a minor determinant of metoprolol metabolism and response. New Engl J Med 303: 1558-60.

Lewis W, Levine ES, Griniuviene B, Tankersley KO, Colacino JM, Sommadossi J-P, Watanabe KA,

Perrino FW (1996) Fialuridine and its metabolites inhibit DNA polymerase gamma at sites of multiple adjacent analog incorporation, decrease mtDNA abundance, and cause mitochondrial structural defects in cultured hepatoblasts. Proc Natl Acad Sci (USA) 93: 3592-7.

Matzinger P (1994) Tolerance, danger, and the extended family. Ann Rev Immunol 12: 991-1045.

McKenzie R, Fried MW, Sallie R, Conjeevaram H, Dibisceglie AM, Park Y, Savarese B, Kleiner D, Tsokos M, Luciano C, Pruett T, Stotka JL, Straus SE, Hoofnagle JH (1995) Hepatic-failure and lactic-acidosis due to fialuridine (fiau), an investigational nucleoside analog for chronic hepatitis-b. New Engl J Med 333: 1099-1105.

Meyers LL, Beierschmitt WP, Khairallah EA, Cohen SD (1988) Acetaminophen-induced inhibition of hepatic mitochondrial respiration in mice. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 93: 378-87.

Michalets EL, Williams CR (2000) Drug interactions with cisapride: clinical implications. Clin Pharmaco-kinet 39: 49-75.

Mirochnitchenko O, Weisbrot-Lefkowitz M, Reuhl K, Chen L, Yang C, Inouye M (1999) Acetaminophen toxicity. Opposite effects of two forms of glutathione peroxidase. J Biol Chem 274: 10349-55.

Moinova HR, Mulcahy RT (1998) An electrophile responsive element (EpRE) regulates beta-naphtho-flavone induction of the human gamma-glutamylcys-teine synthetase regulatory subunit gene. Constitutive expression is mediated by an adjacent AP-1 site. J Biol Chem 273: 14683-9.

Moinova HR, Mulcahy RT (1999) Up-regulation of the human gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase regulatory subunit gene involves binding of Nrf-2 to an electrophile responsive element. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 261: 661-8.

Naisbitt DJ, Gordon SF, Pirmohamed M, Park BK (2000a) Immunological principles of adverse drug reactions: the initiation and propagation of immune responses elicited by drug treatment. Drug Safety 23: 483-507.

Naisbitt DJ, Vilar J, Stalford A, Wilkins EGL, Pirmo-hamed M, Park BK (2000b) Plasma cysteine and decreased reduction of nitroso sulphamethoxazole with HIV infection. AIDS Res Hum Retrov 16: 1929 - 38.

Nelson SD (1990) Molecular mechanisms of the hepatotoxicity caused by acetaminophen. Semin Liver Dis 10: 267-78.

Pamer E, Creswell P (1998) Mechanisms of MHC class-I restricted antigen processing. Ann Rev Immunol 16: 323-58.

Park BK (1986) Metabolic basis of adverse drug reactions. J R Coll Phys 20: 195-200.

Park BK, Coleman JW, Kitteringham NR (1987) Drug disposition and drug hypersensitivity. Biochem Pharmacol 36: 581-90.

Park BK, Naisbitt DJ, Gordon SF, Kitteringham NR, Pirmohamed M (2001) Metabolic activation in drug allergies. Toxicology 158: 11-23.

Park BK, Pirmohamed M (2001) Toxicogenetics in drug development. Toxicol Lett 120 (1-3): 281-91.

Park BK, Pirmohamed M, Kitteringham NR (1992) Idiosyncratic drug reactions: a mechanistic evaluation of risk factors. Br J Clin Pharmacol 34: 377-95.

Park BK, Pirmohamed M, Kitteringham NR (1995) The role of cytochrome P450 enzymes in hepatic and extrahepatic human drug toxicity. Pharmacol Ther 68: 385-424.

Park BK, Pirmohamed M, Kitteringham NR (1998) The role of drug disposition in drug hypersensitivity: a chemical, molecular and clinical perspective. Chem Res Toxicol 11: 969-88.

Pessayre D, Larrey D (1988) Acute and chronic drug-induced hepatitis. Bailliere's Clin Gastroenterol 2: 385-423.

Petty GW, Brown RD, Whisnant JP, Sicks JD, OFallon WM, Wiebers DO (1999) Frequency of major complications of aspirin, warfarin, and intravenous heparin for secondary stroke prevention—a population-based study. Ann Intern Med 130: 14-22.

Pichler WJ, Yawalkar N (2000) Allergic reactions to drugs: involvement of T cells. Thorax 55 (Suppl 2): S61 -S65.

Pirmohamed M, Alfirevic A, Vilar J, Stalford A, Wilkins EG, Sim E, Park BK (2000) Association analysis of drug metabolizing enzyme gene polymorphisms in HIV-positive patients with co-trimox-azole hypersensitivity. Pharmacogenetics 10: 705-13.

Pirmohamed M, Breckenridge AM, Kitteringham NR, Park BK (1998) Adverse drug reactions. Br Med J 316: 1295-8.

Pirmohamed M, Graham A, Roberts P, Smith D, Chadwick D, Breckenridge AM, Park BK (1991) Carbamazepine hypersensitivity: assessment of clinical and in vitro chemical cross-reactivity with phenytoin and oxcarbazepine. Br J Clin Pharmacol, 32: 741-9.

Pirmohamed M, Kitteringham NR, Park BK (1994) The role of active metabolites in drug toxicity. Drug Safety 11: 114-44.

Pirmohamed M, Lin K, Chadwick D, Park BK (2001) TNF-alpha promoter region gene polymorphisms in carbamazepine-hypersensitive patients. Neurology 56 (7): 890-6.

Pirmohamed M, Madden S, Park BK (1996) Idiosyncratic drug reactions: metabolic bioactivation as a pathogenic mechanism. Clin Pharmacokinet 31: 21530.

Pirmohamed M, Park BK (1995) Drug reactions in HIV infected patients. Postgrad Doctor 18: 438-44.

Pirmohamed M, Park BK (1996) Adverse drug reactions. In: Kaufman L, Taberner PV, eds, Pharmacology in the Practice of Anaesthesia. London: Edward Arnold, pp. 641-60.

Pirmohamed M, Park BK (1999) Adverse drug reactions: role of enzyme inhibition and induction. In: Erill S, ed., Proceedings of the Esteve Foundation Symposium VIII: Variability in Human Drug Response. Amsterdam: Elsevier, pp. 41 -51.

Pirmohamed M, Park BK (2001a) Genetic susceptibility to adverse drug reactions. Trends Pharmacol Sci 22(6): 298-305.

Pirmohamed M, Park BK (2001b) HIV and drug allergy. Curr Opin Allergy Clini Immunol 1: 311-16.

Pohl LR, Satoh H, Christ DD, Kenna JG (1988) Immunologic and metabolic basis of drug hypersensi-tivities. Ann Rev Pharmacol 28: 367-87.

Pohl LR, Thomassen D, Pumford NR, Butler LE, Satoh H, Ferrans VJ, Perrone A, Martin BM, Martin JL

(1990) Hapten carrier conjugates associated with halothane hepatitis. In: Witmer CM, et al., eds, Biological Reactive Intermediates, Vol. IV. New York: Plenum, pp. 111-20.

Poller L, Shiach CR, MacCallum PK, Johansen AM, Munster AM, Magalhaes A, Jespersen J, European Concerted Action on Anticoagulation (1998) Multi-centre randomised study of computerised anticoagulant dosage. Lancet 352: 1505-9.

Raucy JL, Lasker JM, Lieber CS, Black M (1989) Acetaminophen activation by human liver cyto-chromes P-450IIE1 and P-450IA2. Arch Biochem Biophys 271: 270-83.

Rawlins MD (1995) Pharmacovigilance: paradise lost, regained or postponed? J R Coll Phys Lond, 29: 41-9.

Rawlins MD, Thompson JW (1991) Mechanisms of adverse drug reactions. In: Davies DM, ed., Textbook of Adverse Drug Reactions. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 18-45.

Ray SD, Mumaw VR, Raje RR, Fariss MW (1996) Protection of acetaminophen-induced hepatocellular apoptosis and necrosis by cholesteryl hemisuccinate pretreatment. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 279: 1470-83.

Ray SD, Sorge CL, Raucy JL, Corcoran GB (1990) Early loss of large genomic DNA in vivo with accumulation of Ca2 + in the nucleus during acet-aminophen-induced liver injury. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 106: 346-51.

Rettie AE, Korzekwa KR, Kunze KL, Lawrence RF, Eddy AC, Aoyama T, Gelboin HV, Gonzalez FJ, Trager WF (1992) Hydroxylation of warfarin by human cdna-expressed cytochrome-p-450—a role for p-4502C9 in the etiology of (s)-warfarin drug-interactions. Chem Res Toxicol 5: 54-9.

Rieder MJ, Shear NH, Kanee A, Tang BK, Spielberg SP

(1991) Prominence of slow acetylator phenotype among patients with sulfonamide hypersensitivity reactions. Clin Pharmacol Ther 49: 13-7.

Romagnani S (1999) Th1/Th2 cells. Inflamm Bowel Dis 5: 285-94.

Roses AD (2000) Pharmacogenetics and the practice of medicine. Nature 405: 857-65.

Schnyder B, Mauri-Hellweg D, Zanni M, Bettens F, Pichler WJ (1997) Direct, MHC-dependent presentation of the drug sulfamethoxazole to human alpha/beta T cell clones. J Clin Invest 100: 136-41.

Scott AK (1989) Warfarin usage: can safety be improved? Pharmacol Ther, 42: 429-57.

Sharief MK, Hentges R (1991) Association between tumor necrosis factor-alpha and disease progression in patients with multiple sclerosis. New Engl J Med 325: 467-72.

Shear NH, Spielberg SP, Cannon M, Miller M (1988) Anticonvulsant hypersensitivity syndrome: in vitro risk assessment. J Clin Invest 82: 1826-32.

Silverstein FE, Faich G, Goldstein JL, Simon LS, Pincus T, Whelton A, Makuch R, Eisen G, Agrawal NM, Stenson WF, Burr AM, Zhao WW, Kent JD, Lefko-with JB, Verburg KM, Geis GS (2000) Gastrointestinal toxicity with celecoxib vs nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis: the CLASS study. A randomized controlled trial. J Am Med Assoc 284: 1247-55.

Singh VK, Mehrotra S, Agarwal SS (1999) The paradigm of Th1 and Th2 cytokines: its relevance to autoimmunity and allergy. Immunol Res 20: 147-61.

Stanton LA, Peterson GM, Rumble RH, Cooper GM, Polack AE (1994) Drug-related admissions to an Australian hospital. J Clin Pharm Therapeut 19: 3417.

Strickler SM, Miller MA, Andermann E, Dansky LV, Seni M-H, Spielberg SP (1985) Genetic predisposition to phenytoin-induced birth defects. Lancet ii, 746-9.

Sullivan JR, Shear NH (2001) The drug hypersensitivity syndrome: what is the pathogenesis? Arch Dermatol 137: 357-64.

Suzuki Y, Inagi R, Aono T, Yamanishi K, Shiohara T (1998) Human herpesvirus 6 infection as a risk factor for the development of severe drug-induced hyper-sensitivity syndrome. Arch Dermatol 134: 1108-12.

Takahashi H, Kashima T, Nomoto S, Iwade K, Tainaka H, Shimizu T, Nomizo Y, Muramoto N, Kimura S, Echizen H (1998) Comparisons between in-vitro and in-vivo metabolism of (S)-warfarin: catalytic activities of cDNA-expressed CYP2C9, its Leu359 variant and their mixture versus unbound clearance in patients with the corresponding CYP2C9 genotypes. Pharmacogenetics 8: 365-73.

Taube J, Halsall D, Baglin T (2000) Influence of cytochrome P-450 CYP2C9 polymorphisms on warfarin sensitivity and risk of over-anticoagulation in patients on long-term treatment. Blood 96: 1816-19.

Tephly TR, Burchell B (1990) UDP-glucuronyl trans-

ferases: a family of detoxifying enzymes. Trends Pharmac Sci 11: 276-229.

The International SNP Map Working Group (2001) A map of human genome sequence variation containing 1.42 million single nucleotide polymorphisms. Nature 409: 928-33.

The MHC Sequencing Consortium (1999) Complete sequence and gene map of a human major histocompatibility complex. Nature 401: 921-23.

Tsokos-Kuhn JO (1989) Evidence in vivo for elevation of intracellular free Ca2 + in the liver after diquat, acetaminophen, and CCl4. Biochem Pharmacol 38: 3061 -65.

Uetrecht JP (1999) New concepts in immunology relevant to idiosyncratic drug reactions: the ''danger hypothesis'' and innate immune system. Chem Res Toxicol 12: 387-95.

van der Ven AJAM, Koopmans PP, Vree TB, van der Meer JW (1991) Adverse reactions to co-trimoxazole in HIV-infection. Lancet ii, 431-33.

Walmsley SL, Khorasheh S, Singer J, Djurdjev O (1998) A randomized trial of N-acetylcysteine for prevention of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole hypersensitivity reactions in Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia prophylaxis (CTN 057). Canadian HIV Trials Network 057 Study Group. J AIDS Hum Retrovirol 19: 498-505.

Weiss ME, Adkinson MF (1988) Immediate hypersensi-tivity reactions to penicillin and related antibiotics. Clin Allergy 18: 515-40.

Williamson J, Chopin JM (1980) Adverse reactions to prescribed drugs in the elderly: a multicentre investigation. Age Ageing 9: 73 -80.

Woolf TF, Jordan RA (1987) Basic concepts in drug metabolism: Part 1. J Clin Pharmacol 27: 15 -17.

Woosley RL, Chen YW, Freiman JP, Gillis RA (1993) Mechanism of the cardiotoxic actions of terfenadine. J Am Med Assoc 269: 1532-36.

Zanni MP, vonGreyerz S, Schnyder B, Brander KA, Frutig K, Hari Y, Valitutti S, Pichler WJ (1998) HLA-restricted, processing- and metabolism-independent pathway of drug recognition by human alpha beta T lymphocytes. J Clin Invest 102: 1591-98.

Zhang H, Cook J, Nickel J, Yu R, Stecker K, Myers K, Dean NM (2000) Reduction of liver Fas expression by an antisense oligonucleotide protects mice from fulminant hepatitis. Nat Biotechnol 18: 862-67.

Zimmerman HJ, Maddrey WC (1995) Acetaminophen (paracetamol) hepatotoxicity with regular intake of alcohol: analysis of instances of therapeutic misadventure. Hepatology 22: 767-73.

Drug Free Life

Drug Free Life

How To Beat Drugs And Be On Your Way To Full Recovery. In this book, you will learn all about: Background Info On Drugs, Psychological Treatments Statistics, Rehab, Hypnosis and Much MORE.

Get My Free Ebook

Post a comment