References

Andersson KE (1984) Clinical pharmacology of terodiline. Scand J Urol Nephrol Suppl 87: 13-20.

Andersson K-E, Ekstrom B, Mattiasson A (1988) Actions of terodiline, its isomers and main metabolite on isolated detrusor muscle from rabbit and man. Pharmacol Toxicol 63: 390-5.

Andrews NP, Bevan J (1991) Torsade de pointes and terodiline. Lancet 338: 633.

Anon (1988) Prenylamine withdrawn in UK. Scrip (England), No. 1300, p. 26.

Anon (1991a) Terodiline (Micturin): Adverse cardiac reactions. Dear Doctor/Pharmacist letter dated 25 July 1991. London: Committee on Safety of Medicines.

Anon (1991b) Withdrawal of terodiline. Current Problems, Issue 32, pp. 1-2. London: Committee on Safety of Medicines.

Anon (1993) Effects of terodiline on urinary incontinence among older non-institutionalised women. Terodiline in the Elderly American Multicenter Study Group. J Am Geriat Soc 41 915-22.

Anon (1997a) Points to consider: the assessment of the potential for QT interval prolongation by non-cardiovascular medicinal products. Committee for Proprietary Medicinal Products (CPMP=986/96). London: EMEA, 17 December 1997.

Anon (1997b) Note for guidance on the investigation of drug interactions. Committee for Proprietary Medicinal Products (CPMP / EWP /560/95) London: EMEA, 17 December 1997.

Anon (1998a) Clinical investigation of chiral active substances. CPMP Guideline (CPMP/3501/91) In: The Rules Governing Medicinal Products in the

European Union EUDRALEX, Vol. 3C: Efficacy Guidelines. Brussels: European Commission, pp. 381-91.

Anon (1998b) The extent of population exposure to assess clinical safety for drugs intended for long-term treatment of non-life-threatening conditions. CPMP Guideline (CPMP/ICH/375/95). In: The Rules Governing Medicinal Products in the European Union EUDRALEX, Vol. 3C: Efficacy Guidelines Brussels: European Commission, pp. 121 -5.

Bayer R, Schwarzmaler J, Pernice R (1988) Basic mechanism underlying prenylamine-induced torsade de pointes: differences between prenylamine and fendiline due to basic actions of the isomers. Curr Med Res Opin 11: 254-72.

Boyd G (1990) A correction to ''An apparent fatal overdose of terodiline''. J Anal Toxicol 14: 194.

Brynne N, Dalen P, Alvan G, Bertilsson L, Gabrielsson J (1998) Influence of CYP2D6 polymorphism on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of tolter-odine. Clin Pharmacol Ther 63: 529-39.

Brynne N, Forslund C, Hallen B, Gustafsson LL, Bertilsson L (1999) Ketoconazole inhibits the metabolism of tolterodine in subjects with deficient CYP2D6 activity. Br J Clin Pharmacol 48: 564-72.

Castenfors H, Hedenstiarna G, Glenne P-O (1975) Pilot study of the effects of terodiline chloride (Bicor) in obstructive pulmonary disease. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 8: 197-200.

Cattini RA, Makin HL, Trafford DJ, Vanezis P (1989) An apparent fatal overdose of terodiline. J Anal Toxicol 13: 110-12.

Connolly MJ, Astridge PS, White EG, Morley CA, Campbell-Cowan J (1991) Torsade de pointes, ventricular tachycardia and terodiline. Lancet 338: 344-5.

Davis SW, Brecker SJ, Stevenson RN (1991) Terodiline for treating detrusor instability in elderly patients. Br Med J 302: 1276.

Dessertenne F (1966) La tachycardie ventriculaire a deux foyers opporees variable. Arch Mal Coeur Vaiss 59: 263-72.

Fischer-Rasmussen W (1984) Evaluation of long-term safety and clinical benefit of terodiline in women with urgency/urge incontinence. A multicentre study. Scand J Urol Nephrol Suppl 87: 35-47.

Ford GA, Wood SM, Daly AK (2000) CYP2D6 and CYP2C19 genotypes of patients with terodiline cardiotoxicity identified through the yellow card system. Br J Clin Pharmacol 50: 77-80.

Geelen P, Drolet B, Rail J, Berube J, Daleau P, Rousseau G, Cardinal R, O'Hara GE, Turgeon J (2000) Sildenafil (Viagra) prolongs cardiac repolar-ization by blocking the rapid component of the delayed rectifier potassium current. Circulation 102: 275-77.

Geitl Y, Spahn H, Knauf H, Mutschler E (1990) Single and multiple dose pharmacokinetics of R-(—)- and S-(+)-prenylamine in man. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 38: 587-93.

Hall GC, Chukwujindu J, Richardson J, Lis Y, Wild RN (1993) Micturin (terodiline) hydrochloride, torsade de pointe and other arrhythmias—a study using the VAMP database. Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety 2: 127-132.

Hallen B, Bogentoft S, Sandquist S, Stromberg S, Setterberg G, Ryd-Kjellen E (1989) Tolerability and steady-state pharmacokinetics of terodiline and its main metabolites in elderly patients with urinary incontinence. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 36: 487-93.

Hallen B, Gralls M, Brotell H, Stromberg S (1990) Pharmacokinetics of terodiline and a major metabolite in dogs with a correlation to a pharmacodynamic effect. Pharmacol Toxicol 66: 373-81.

Hallen B, Gabrielsson J, Palmer L, Ekstrom B (1993) Pharmacokinetics of R(+)-terodiline given intravenously and orally to healthy volunteers. Pharmacol Toxicol 73: 153-8.

Hallen B, Karlsson MO, Stromberg S, Noren B (1994) Bioavailability and disposition of terodiline in man. J Pharmaceut Sci 83: 1241-46.

Hallen B, Gabrielsson J, Nyambati S, Johansson A, Larsson E, Guilbaud O (1995) Concomitant single-dose and multiple-dose pharmacokinetics of terodiline in man, with a note on its enantiomers and major metabolites. Pharmacol Toxicol 76: 1717.

Hartigan-Go K, Bateman ND, Daly AK, Thomas SHL (1996) Stereoselective cardiotoxic effects of terodiline. Clin Pharmacol Ther 60: 89-98.

Hashimoto K, Nakagawa Y, Nabata H, Imai S (1978) In vitro analysis of Ca-antagonistic effects of pre-nylamine as mechanisms for its cardiac actions. Arch Int Pharmacodyn Ther 273: 212-21.

Haverkamp W, Breithardt G, Camm AJ, Janse MJ, Rosen MR, Antzelevitch C, Escande D, Franz M, Malik M, Moss A, Shah R et al. (2000) The potential for QT prolongation and proarrhythmia by non-antiarrhythmic drugs: clinical and regulatory implications. Report on a Policy Conference of the European Society of Cardiology. Eur Heart J 21: 1216-31.

Hoglund P, Paulsen O, Bogentoft S (1989) No effect of terodiline on anticoagulation effect of warfarin and steady-state plasma levels of warfarin enantio-mers in healthy volunteers. Ther Drug Monit 11: 667-73.

Inman W, Clarke J, Wilton L, Pearce G, Vendhuis GJ (1993) PEM Report No 2: Terodiline. Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety 2: 287-319.

Iravani VJ, Melville GN (1975) Effect of terodiline on bronchial muscles and on tracheobronchial clearance in the rat. Arzneimittelforschung 25: 415-7 [Article in German].

Jones SE, Ogura T, Shuba LM, McDonald TF (1998) Inhibition of the rapid component of the delayed-rectifier K+ current by therapeutic concentrations of the antispasmodic agent terodiline. Br J Pharmacol 125: 1138-43.

Karlen B, Andersson K-E, Ekman G, Stromberg S, Ulmsten U (1982) Pharmacokinetics of terodiline in human volunteers. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 23: 26770.

Larsson-Backstrom C, Arrhenius E, Sagge K (1985) Comparison of the calcium antagonistic effects of terodiline, nifedipine and verapamil. Acta Pharmacol Toxicol 57: 8-17.

Lindeke B, Ericsson O, Jonsson A, Noren B, Stromberg S, Vangbo B (1987) Biotransformation of terodiline. III. Opposed stereoselectivity in the benzylic and aromatic hydroxylations in rat liver microsomes. Xenobiotica 17: 1269-78.

McLeod AA, Thorogood S, Barnett S (1991) Torsade de pointes complicating treatment with terodiline. Br Med J 302: 1469.

Natsukawa T, Matsuzaki T, Hayashi S, Ukai Y, Yoshikuni Y, Kimura K (1998) Comparison of the effects of NS-21 and terodiline on the QTc interval in dogs. Gen Pharmacol 30: 137-42.

Noren B, Stromberg S, Ericsson O, Lindeke B (1989) Biotransformation of terodiline V. Stereoselectivity in hydroxylation by human liver microsomes. Chem Biol Interactions 71: 325-37.

Noronha-Blob L, Prosser JC, Sturm BL, Lowe VC, Enna SJ (1991) (+/-)-Terodiline: an M1-selective muscarinic receptor antagonist. In vivo effects at muscarinic receptors mediating urinary bladder contraction, mydriasis and salivary secretion. Eur J Pharmacol 201: 135-42.

Norton P, Karram M, Wall LL, Rosenzweig B, Benson JT, Fantl JA (1994) Randomized double-blind trial of terodiline in the treatment of urge incontinence in women. Obstet Gynecol 84: 385-91.

Paar WD, Brockmeier D, Hirzebruch M, Schmidt EK, von Unruh GE, Dengler HJ (1990) Pharmacokinetics of prenylamine racemate and enantiomers in man. Arzneim Forsch 40: 657-61.

Peters D (1984) Terodiline in the treatment of urinary frequency and motor urge incontinence. A controlled multicentre trial. Scand J Urol Nephrol Suppl 87: 2133.

Picard R, Auzepy P, Chauvin JP (1971) Syncopes a repetition au cours d'un traitement prolonge par la prenylamine (Segontine 60). Presse Med 79: 145.

Postlind H, Danielson A, Lindgren A, Andersson SHG (1998) Tolterodine, a new muscarinic receptor antagonist, is metabolized by cytochromes P450 2D6 and 3A in human liver microsomes. Drug Metab Dispos 26: 289-93.

Pressler ML, Warner MR, Rubart M, Rardon DP, Zipes DP (1995) In vivo and in vitro electrophysio-

logic effects of terodiline on dog myocardium. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol 6: 443-54.

Priori SG (1998) Exploring the hidden danger of noncardiac drugs. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol 9: 1114-6.

Rodenkirchen R, Bayer R, Mannhold R (1980) On the stereospecific negative inotropic action of prenyla-mine. Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Arch Pharmacol 313 (Suppl): R41.

Salle P, Rey JL, Bernasconi P, Quiret JC, Lombaert M (1985) Torsades de pointe. Apropos of 60 cases. Ann Cardiol Angeiol (Paris) 34: 381 -8.

Shah RR (1999) Drug-induced hepatotoxicity: pharma-cokinetic perspectives and strategies for risk reduction. Adverse Drug React Toxicol Rev 18: 181-233.

Shah RR (2000) The influence of chirality on drug development. Future Prescriber 1: 14-17.

Shah RR, Midgley JM, Branch SK (1998) Stereochemi-cal origin of some clinically significant drug safety concerns: lessons for future drug development. Adverse Drug React Toxicol Rev 17: 145-90.

Shuba LM, Kasamaki Y, Jones SE, Ogura T, McCul-lough JR, McDonald TF (1999) Action potentials, contraction, and membrane currents in guinea pig ventricular preparations treated with the antispasmodic agent terodiline. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 290: 1417 -26.

Sofowora G, Dishy V, Roden D, Wood AJJ, Stein CM (2001) The effect of sildenafil on QT interval in healthy men. Clin Pharmacol Ther 69: 67 (abstract PIII-11).

Stewart DA, Taylor J, Ghosh S, Macphee GJ, Abdullah I, McLenachan JM, Stott DJ (1992) Terodiline causes polymorphic ventricular tachycardia due to reduced heart rate and prolongation of QT interval. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 42: 577-80.

Thomas SHL, Hartigan-Go K (1996) Disposition of R(+)- and S(—)-terodiline in healthy man. Clin Pharmacol Ther 59: 160 (PII-6).

Thomas SH, Higham PD, Hartigan-Go K, Kamali F, Wood P, Campbell RW, Ford GA (1995) Concentration dependent cardiotoxicity of terodiline in patients treated for urinary incontinence. Br Heart J 74: 53-6.

Veldhuis GJ, Inman WHE (1991) Terodiline and torsades de pointes. Br Med J 303: 519.

Waldo AL, Camm AJ, deRuyter H, Friedman PL, MacNeil DJ, Pauls KF, Pitt B, Pratt CM, Schwartz PJ, Veltri EP for the SWORD Investigators (1996) Effect of d-sotalol on mortality in patients with left ventricular dysfunction after recent and remote myocardial infarction. Lancet 348: 7-12.

Wibell L (1968) Terodiline in angina pectoris—a controlled study of a new drug. Acta Soc Med Ups 73: 75-80.

Wild RN (1992) Micturin and torsade de pointes— experience of a post-marketing alert. Pharmacoepide-miology and Drug Safety 1: 147-50.

Yoshihara H, Yasumoto R, Kishimoto T, Maekawa M, Horii A, Nishijima T, Sugimoto T, Kashiwara N, Tsujita M, Senjyu M, et al. (1992) Clinical study of terodiline hydrochloride for the treatment of urinary frequency and urinary incontinence, and its cardiovascular adverse effect. Hinyokika Kiyo 38: 967-72 [Article in Japanese].

Dealing With Erectile Dysfunction

Dealing With Erectile Dysfunction

Whether you call it erectile dysfunction, ED, impotence, or any number of slang terms, erection problems are something many men have to face during the course of their lifetimes.

Get My Free Ebook


Post a comment