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within-drug controls is as follows. The rates of adverse reactions were higher in women than men for moclobemide (relative risk (RR) 1.7; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.4-2.0) and fluoxetine (RR 1.7; 95% CI 1.3-2.2). There was no significant gender difference seen in the incident rates. It would appear therefore that the gender difference seen for the reactions is a true risk factor and not due to reporting bias.

For these two drugs, which were monitored concurrently, the incidents were also used as between-drug controls. The reaction rate for fluoxetine was 50% higher than for moclobemide (RR 1.5; 95% CI 1.2-1.7). There was no significant difference between the incident rates, suggesting an absence of reporting bias and strengthening the finding of greater risk with fluoxetine (Coulter, 1996). The monitoring of omeprazole provides another example. The results for this drug showed a very low rate of reactions. However, the incident rate was slightly higher than for other drugs monitored concurrently, suggesting once again an absence of reporting bias and a strengthening of the finding (Table 27.4).

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