Protease Inhibitors

a1-Antitrypsin (or a1-proteinase inhibitor) and secretory leukoprotease inhibitor (SLPI) are proteins generated by the body that protect the connective tissue of the lungs from degradation by neutrophil elastase. A genetic deficiency or defect in aj-antitrypsin leads to alveolar destruction and emphysema [113], and intravenous administration of exogenous a1-antitrypsin can be used to halt these pathological processes. Progressive lung damage can similarly occur in patients with cystic fibrosis through the action of elastase released from infiltrating neutrophils. For a given intravenous dose of aj-antitrypsin, only 2% has been estimated to reach the lungs [114]. As a result, aerosol administration is viewed as a more efficient means of achieving therapeutic repression of elastase-induced lung damage. Inhaled aj-antitrypsin and recombinant human SLP1 have been shown to be well tolerated [115,116]. Currently, phase II human trials investigating the efficacy of inhaled a1-antitrypsin are being completed by Bayer®/PPL Therapeutics. With the discovery of the matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in the lung and as a clearer understanding of their role in lung disease is made [117], it is possible that we may see MMP inhibitors delivered by inhalation for therapeutic benefit in the future.

Diabetes 2

Diabetes 2

Diabetes is a disease that affects the way your body uses food. Normally, your body converts sugars, starches and other foods into a form of sugar called glucose. Your body uses glucose for fuel. The cells receive the glucose through the bloodstream. They then use insulin a hormone made by the pancreas to absorb the glucose, convert it into energy, and either use it or store it for later use. Learn more...

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