When the first edition of Pharmaceutical Inhalation Aerosol Technology was published there was a clear need for a concise review of the state-of-the-art technology for those entering the field. During the previous 25 years this had been a relatively dormant field for innovation outside of large corporations, which clearly dominated the market for these products. As the 1990s began, it was clear that interest in the potential of aerosols for the treatment of both local and systemic diseases was increasing. This seemed an ideal time to produce a specialized book in this field. By the end of the 1990s it would not be an overstatement to say that a revolution had occurred. Many new and some existing companies began to focus on aerosols. Hundreds of new openings for personnel were created, and the literature flourished with new and ever more interesting discoveries regarding the administration of drugs as aerosols to the lungs.

In this current climate of discovery and increased commercial activity the time is right for this second edition. In this volume I have tried to incorporate all of the old, yet still relevant topics, and I have included new sections that cover material that was either in the early days of evaluation or unheard of in 1992.

In Part One, chapters have been included covering cell biology and pharmacokinetics. Historically, the pharmacokinetics of locally acting drugs administered in low doses was thought to be an irrelevancy. With the burgeoning interest in the systemic action of drugs intended either for local activity, such as corticosteriods, or for remote activity, such as insulin-the pharmacokinetics of disposition is now key in the development of aerosol products. Needless to say, with this interest in the disposition of drugs from the lungs, the mechanisms of transport must be elucidated and the tools of cell biology will be necessary to achieve this goal.

Part Two remains largely the same as in the first edition. The fundamentals of aerosol science have changed little in the last decade. However, the original focus was on the pressure-packaged metered-dose inhaler. Environmental concerns over ozone depletion and global warming and the need for alternative formulation strategies for biological molecules have driven the development of new dry-powder inhalers and handheld aqueous aerosol inhalers. These were discussed briefly in the first edition and are now given separate sections.

Part Three is the most extensively modified in the second edition. In the early 1990s asthma was the only disease that was being treated systematically with aerosols. Throughout the decade the concept of treating diabetes with insulin aerosols, cystic fibrosis by gene transfection, and infectious diseases with antimicrobials gained ground. Many of these approaches have yet to be commercial or therapeutic success stories, but by the time this book is in print they may be available to the clinician. Consequently, sections on these topics have been added.

It is worth reiterating a sentiment from the first edition. The literature is replete with publications advancing the frontiers of knowledge. This text is intended to be an overview of the state of the art of the technology. I leave it to others to edit prospective, scientifically detailed books. To remind the readers how far we have come, and how quickly, a concluding chapter is included that reviews the past decade and speculates on the future.

On a personal note, it was most gratifying to see how well the original volume was received. To those of you who read the book, some of whom have thanked me for collating the materials, I owe you a debt of gratitude for applying this knowledge and making it worthwhile. I hope you find this new edition as useful and informative.

Anthony J. Hickey

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